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   2016| April-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 6, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial
Parvin Safavi, Ali Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Maryam AmirAhmadi
April-June 2016, 7(2):43-47
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.177203  PMID:27144151
Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group). Assessment was performed by Conners' rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00), with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894), and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671) were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00). Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children.
  6,198 723 5
Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves
Yamon Pitakpawasutthi, Worathat Thitikornpong, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi
April-June 2016, 7(2):37-42
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.177200  PMID:27144150
Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential.
  3,379 694 7
In vivo antimalarial activity of extracts of Tanzanian medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria
Ramadhani SO Nondo, Paul Erasto, Mainen J Moshi, Abdallah Zacharia, Pax J Masimba, Abdul W Kidukuli
April-June 2016, 7(2):59-63
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.179748  PMID:27144154
Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 Χ 10 7 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day) and solvent (5 mL/kg/day) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s). In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria.
  3,143 524 7
Characterization of Yuhushiella sp. TD-032 from the Thar Desert and its antimicrobial activity
A Ibeyaima, Jyoti Rana, Anuj Dwivedi, Sanjay Gupta, Sanjeev K Sharma, Narendra Saini, Indira P Sarethy
April-June 2016, 7(2):32-36
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.177201  PMID:27144149
During a screening program for antimicrobial compounds from underexplored habitats, a Gram-positive bacterium TD-032, was isolated from arid soil, Thar Desert (India), and analyzed for its morphological, physicochemical, and antimicrobial properties. The 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence of the isolate was further studied for the novelty of γ-hyper variable region. TD-032 was grown in large-scale culture, and aqueous and organic solvent extracts analyzed for antimicrobial activity. Culture characteristics showed a lack of diffusible and melanoid pigments. The morphological features were pale yellow aerial mycelium colony color with brownish yellow substrate mycelium and leathery texture. The isolate could grow at 1% concentration of sodium chloride, temperature of 40΀C, and a wide range of pH (7.0-12.0). An evaluation for extracellular enzymatic activities showed secretion of gelatinase(s), cellulase(s), and lipase(s). The γ-hyper variable region of 16S rDNA sequence of TD-032 showed 98.33% relatedness to Yuhushiella deserti, indicating a potential new species. Aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria inclusive clinical isolates. Inhibition of both test bacteria suggests that TD-032 produces a broad spectrum of antimicrobial substances.
  2,765 406 2
Propranolol-induced gingival hyperplasia with Nager syndrome: A rare adverse drug reaction
Syed Ahmed Raheel, Omar Bashar Kujan, Bassel Tarakji, Dilshad Umar, Salah Ibrahim
April-June 2016, 7(2):64-68
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.179749  PMID:27144155
Drug reactions are a group of reactionary lesions generally show their manifestations in the oral cavity. The drug reactions may vary from local rashes to well-developed swellings in the oral cavity especially involving the gingiva. Most of the drug reactions are asymptomatic and commonly triggered from the active metabolite of a drug used for a long time. Nager syndrome is a group of acrofacial dysostosis that usually results in craniofacial and limb malformations. The craniofacial defects are very similar to the mandibulofacial dysostosis. A very early intervention is needed for the habilitation of the patient especially when it is concerned with speech and language development. This paper reports a case of a 32-year-old female with craniofacial, limb, and skeletal abnormalities along with a drug-induced gingival hyperplasia.
  2,614 344 2
Assessment of prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in multiethnic population of the United Arab Emirates
Sathvik Belagodu Sridhar, Padma Gurumadhva Rao, Satendra Kumar Multani, Meenakshi Jain
April-June 2016, 7(2):48-53
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.177202  PMID:27144152
United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D. Not much data are available regarding the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among multiethnic UAE adult population. (1) To determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in multiethnic UAE population (2) To compare the Vitamin D status in Arab and non-Arab population (3) To identify the demographic variables associated with hypovitaminosis D. It was a retrospective study conducted at a secondary care hospital. Electronic case records of all the subjects who had checked their Vitamin D levels during the time period of May 2010-October 2012 were considered for the study. Vitamin D severe deficiency, deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency were defined as serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels < 10 ng/mL, 10-20 ng/mL, 21-30 ng/mL, and > 30 ng/mL, respectively. A total 425 subjects were included for the data analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 208 (48.9%) subjects followed by severe Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in 141 (33.2%) and 63 (14.8%) subjects, respectively. The overall prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 96.9%. Negative association (r = −0.196, P < 0.01) was observed between body mass index (BMI) and 25(OH)D levels. Ethnicity was not (P = 0.103) a predictor of 25(OH)D levels. Majority of our study subjects had Vitamin D deficiency. There was no substantial difference in 25(OH)D levels of different ethnic groups. Female gender, age, and BMI were the predictors 25(OH)D levels.
  2,493 305 10
Possible carcinogenic potential of dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate in experimental animals
Sanaa Sabet Botros, Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Olfat Ali Hammam, Abdel-Naser Abdel-Aal Sabra, Alaa Awad Taha
April-June 2016, 7(2):54-58
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.179747  PMID:27144153
Dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB) has been extensively used in the treatment of liver diseases accounting for 1-6% of the global disease burden. Cell replication, DNA synthesis, and proliferation, providing significant information about behavior of cells were examined in mice exposed to subchronic administration with DDB. Conventional liver functions specifically gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), a marker expressing liver canceration was also investigated. Normal mice were allocated into two groups each of 10 mice. The 1 st and 2 nd groups were treated with DDB in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day, 5 days/week for 1 month and 3 months, respectively. Comparable groups of normal mice were left without treatment as controls. Compared to normal control group, animals receiving DDB for 3 months showed marked elevations of both alanine aminotransferase and γ-GT, significant inhibition in cytochrome P450, a significant increase in the mean ploidy and 4C with moderate to marked increase in S-phase populations and the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells. In conclusion, this is the first report on the potential relationship between the subchronic administration of DDB and the increase in the hepatocyte proliferation, cell replication and DNA synthesis that may raise an alarm regarding possible DDB insult on the biological behavior of cells.
  2,079 218 -
EDITORIAL
Patent: A priceless element for intellectuality
Upendra Nagaich
April-June 2016, 7(2):31-31
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.179746  PMID:27144148
  2,026 239 -
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