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   2012| April-June  | Volume 3 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 16, 2012

 
 
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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of green tea and black tea: A comparative in vitro study
Priyanka Chatterjee, Sangita Chandra, Protapaditya Dey, Sanjib Bhattacharya
April-June 2012, 3(2):136-138
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97298  PMID:22837963
The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extracts of green tea and black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) against the denaturation of protein in vitro. The test extracts at different concentrations were incubated with egg albumin under controlled experimental conditions and subjected to determination of absorbance to assess the anti-inflammatory property. Diclofenac sodium was used as the reference drug. The present results exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of protein (albumin) denaturation by both the tea extracts. From the present findings it can be concluded that both green and black tea leaves possessed a marked anti-inflammatory effect against the denaturation of protein, in vitro. Green tea was found to be more active than black tea, plausibly due to the higher flavonoid contents of green tea.
  53 7,100 782
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of permeation enhancers on the penetration mechanism of transfersomal gel of ketoconazole
Reshmy Rajan, Deepa T Vasudevan
April-June 2012, 3(2):112-116
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97286  PMID:22837959
The aim of the present research work was to investigate the potential of transfersome formulations for transdermal delivery of Ketoconazole (KTZ). KTZ is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that is active against a wide variety of fungi and yeasts. It is readily but incompletely absorbed after oral dosing and is highly variable. The transfersomes were formulated by lipid film hydration technique using Rotary vacuum Evaporator. The prepared transfersomes were converted into suitable gel formulation and is evaluated for their gel characteristics like pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, homogeneity, drug content, etc. Suitable essential oils acting as natural permeation enhancers were added to the transfersomal formulation of KTZ for their release studies. Studies proved that addition of suitable permeation enhancers to the transfersomal formulation improved the release and permeation of KTZ, which showed that the permeation enhancers modify the barrier to penetration present in skin without itself undergoing any change. From the various essential oils which are used as permeation enhancers, the formulation containing Eucalyptus oil showed better in vitro release and permeation as compared with other formulations containing different permeation enhancers.
  28 6,041 655
REVIEW ARTICLES
Hydroxamic acid - A novel molecule for anticancer therapy
Dilipkumar Pal, Supriyo Saha
April-June 2012, 3(2):92-99
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97281  PMID:22837956
Hydroxamic acid is a potent moiety not only in the field of cancer therapy but also as a mutagenic agent. Among the various derivatives of hydroxamic acid, SAHA (Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid) is considered as a potent anticancer agent. Scientists from the different corner synthesized different hydroxamic acid moieties with some straight chain oxazole, thiadiazole, biphenyl moieties in the terminal position. Acetylation and deacetylation of histones of the core proteins of nucleosomes in chromatin play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. The level of acetylation of histones is established and maintained by two classes of enzymes, histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylases, which have been identified as transcriptional coactivators and transcriptional corepressors, respectively. There is increasing evidence that aberrant histone acetylation has been linked to various malignant diseases. Great efforts are currently underway for the design of more potent and less toxic candidates for the treatment of cancer. In recent years, hydroxamic acid derivatives have attracted increasing attention for their potential as highly efficacious in combating various etiological factors associated with cancer. Our main intention to draw an attention is that this single functional moiety has not only fit in the receptor but also create a diversified activity.
  27 5,817 754
Biophytum sensitivum : Ancient medicine, modern targets
KM Sakthivel, C Guruvayoorappan
April-June 2012, 3(2):83-91
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97279  PMID:22837955
Research on medicinal plants began to focus on discovery of natural products as potential active principles against various diseases. Medicinal plants are very interesting, have the ability to produce remarkable chemical structures with diverse biological activities. Biophytum sensitivum is used as traditional medicine to cure variety of diseases. During the last few decades, extensive research has been carried out to elucidate the chemistry, biological activities, and medicinal applications of B. sensitivum. Phytochemical analysis have shown that the plant parts are rich in various beneficial compounds which include amentoflavone, cupressuflavone, and isoorientin. Extracts and its bioactive compounds have been known to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, radioprotective, chemoprotective, antimetastatic, antiangiogenesis, wound-healing, immunomodulation, anti-diabetic, and cardioprotective activity. The present review has been carried out to shed light on the diverse role of this plant in the management of various ailments facing us.
  17 7,376 639
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Development and validation of a HPLC method for the determination of trans-resveratrol in spiked human plasma
Gurinder Singh, Roopa S Pai, Vinay Pandit
April-June 2012, 3(2):130-135
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97296  PMID:22837962
A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive, and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of Resveratrol (trans-3, 4΄,5-trihydroxystilbene) in human plasma using liquid-liquid extraction. Caffeine was employed as an internal standard (IS). However, little information is known about its distribution in the organism generally because of the lack of accurate and precise detection methods. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at room temperature in isocratic mode, and the column effluent was monitored by UV detector at 306 nm. The mobile phase used was methanol: phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 adjusted with 0.5% (v/v) orthophosphoric acid solution in Milli-Q water) (63:37%, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Nominal retention times of trans-resveratrol and IS were 3.94 and 7.86 minutes, respectively. Limits of detection and Limits of quantification of trans-resveratrol were 0.006 μg/ml and 0.008 μg/ml, respectively. This method was linear over the range of 0.010 to 6.4 μg/ml with regression coefficient greater than 0.9998. The inter- and intra-day precisions in the samples, 0.010, 3.2 and 6.4 μg/ml of trans-resveratrol was in the range 0.63 to 2.12% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 0.46 to 1.02% RSD, respectively. Resveratrol was found to be stable for a period of 15 days on storage at -20°C. The method was found to be precise, accurate, and specific during the study.
  15 6,141 664
Acute, sub-chronic oral toxicity studies and evaluation of antiulcer activity of Sooktyn in experimental animals
Phool Chandra, Neetu Sachan, Kamal Kishore, Ashoke Kumar Ghosh
April-June 2012, 3(2):117-123
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97290  PMID:22837960
Sooktyn (SKN), mineralo-herbal drug which is being used largely by the patients for its extremely good therapeutic value to treat the gastric ulcers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity studies and antiulcer activity of SKN. Acute and sub-chronic toxicities were studied in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute SKN of 2 000 mg/kg was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Sub-chronic doses were 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The major toxicological end points examined included animal body weight and food intake, selected tissue weights, and detailed gross necropsy. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count and MCH, MCHC and platelets as well as biochemical parameters: urea, sugar, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, and creatinine. Also, anti-ulcer activity was carried out by employing indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models. LD 50 may be greater than 2 000 mg/kg (orally) for SKN and there were no signs of toxicity on 28 days sub-chronic oral administration of 400 and 800 mg/kg of SKN in rats on the basis of blood elements and biochemical parameters. The ulcer indices decrease in all ulcer models with 66.62%, 61.24%, 80.18%, and 74.76% in indomethacin, ethanol, pylorus ligation, and hypothermic-stress-induced ulcer models, respectively. The results suggest that SKN has no signs of toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg body weight of rats orally; sub-chronically. The drug is safe and has antiulcer activity.
  8 4,435 357
Development and evaluation of microporous osmotic tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride
Afifa Bathool, DV Gowda, Mohammed S Khan, Ayaz Ahmed, SL Vasudha, K Rohitash
April-June 2012, 3(2):124-129
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97292  PMID:22837961
Microporous osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed for colon targeting. These prepared microporous osmotic pump tablet did not require laser drilling to deliver the drug to the specific site of action. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan coating process. The incorporation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a leachable pore-forming agent, could form in situ delivery pores while coming in contact with gastrointestinal medium. The effect of formulation variables was studied by changing the amounts of sodium alginate and NaCMC in the tablet core, osmogen, and that of pore-forming agent (SLS) used in the semipermeable coating. As the amount of hydrophilic polymers increased, drug release rate prolonged. It was found that drug release was increased as the concentration of osmogen and pore-former was increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the formation of pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The formation of pores was dependent on the amount of pore former used in the semipermeable membrane. in vitro results showed acid-resistant, timed release at an almost zero order up to 24 hours. The developed osmotic tablets could be effectively used for prolonged delivery of Diltiazem HCl.
  6 4,408 430
Effect of hydroxyapatite on the physicochemical characteristics of a gentamicin-loaded monoolein gel intended to treat chronic osteomyelitis
Rasmané Semdé, Réné Flore Gueu Gondi, Bavouma Charles Sombié, B Gérard Josias Yaméogo, Moustapha Ouédraogo
April-June 2012, 3(2):100-105
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97283  PMID:22837957
Many works have demonstrated the real potential of gentamicin-monoolein-water formulations as bioresorbable and sustained-release implants for the local treatment of the chronic osteomyelitis. In order to improve the efficacy of this type of implant, the incorporation of hydroxyapatite, a well-known osteointegrator material, is thought to be an interesting approach. Five formulations incorporating 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20% of hydroxyapatite were examined with regard to their physicochemical and in vitro drug release characteristics. The rheological, thermal (differential scanning calorimetric and thermogravimetric diffraction analysis), X-ray diffraction, and dissolution studies have showed that the presence of hydroxyapatite does not dramatically disturb the cubic liquid crystalline structure of the monoolein-water gel and their ability to progressively release the antibiotic. Implant 20% that was capable to release gentamicin sulfate over a period of four weeks without marked burst effect could be used as a more suitable biodegradable delivery system for the local management of chronic osteomyelitis.
  5 1,707 154
Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Samadera indica for skin diseases
Vidya Viswanad, NA Aleykutty, B Jayakar, Subin Mary Zacharia, Litha Thomas
April-June 2012, 3(2):106-111
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97285  PMID:22837958
Samadera indica Gaetrn (Simaroubaceae) is claimed to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, antiviral, and so on, but its taste is bitter. The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity of the methanolic extract and to develop suitable herbal formulations of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica, having efficient antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract prepared from the dried leaves of Samadera indica by continuous hot percolation, were used to examine the toxicity, according to the OECD 423 guidelines, in Swiss Albino mice. Topical formulations were prepared by incorporating Samadera indica (5% w / w) in an emulsifying ointment and a carbopol gel base and evaluated for physical parameters and in-vitro antimicrobial activity (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans). The study reveals that no animals under the study showed any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality when administered a dose of 5 - 2000 mg / kg body weight. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica was above 2000 mg / kg body weight. The formulated ointment and gel had acceptable physical parameters that showed that they were compatible with the skin, and in addition to this, these formulations passed the short-term stability studies. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity studies showed that the formulated ointment showed significantly strong (p < 0.05) activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans than the formulated gel. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated ointment and gel are safe and efficient antimicrobial formulations for the topical delivery of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica.
  1 4,774 584
EDITORIAL
Society of Pharmaceutical Education and Research: 1 st Annual Conference: DIPSAR, New Delhi, India
Upendra Nagaich
April-June 2012, 3(2):81-81
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97272  PMID:22837953
  - 2,672 281
GUEST EDITORIAL
Herbal drug development from natural sources
Satish Sardana
April-June 2012, 3(2):82-82
DOI:10.4103/2231-4040.97274  PMID:22837954
  - 3,163 425
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