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   2010| April-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since November 2, 2010

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Clinical aspects of acute post-operative pain management & its assessment
Anuj Gupta, Kirtipal Kaur, Sheeshpal Sharma, Shubham Goyal, Saahil Arora, R.S.R Murthy
April-June 2010, 1(2):97-108
PMID:22247838
Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.
  16,055 966 -
Need for harmonization of labeling of medical devices: A review
Raiendra K Songara, Ganesh N Sharma, Vipul K Gupta, Promila Gupta
April-June 2010, 1(2):127-144
PMID:22247840
Medical device labeling is any information associated with a device targeted to the patient or lay caregiver. It is intended to help assure that the device is used safely and effectively. Medical device labeling is supplied in many formats, for example, as patient brochures, patient leaflets, user manuals, and videotapes. The European commission has discussed a series of agreements with third countries, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Canada, Japan and Eastern European countries wishing to join the EU, concerning the mutual acceptance of inspection bodies, proof of conformity in connection with medical devices. Device labeling is exceedingly difficult for manufacturers for many reasons like regulations from government bodies to ensure compliance, increased competent authority surveillance, increased audits and language requirements.
  15,278 595 -
Various types and management of breast cancer: An overview
Ganesh N Sharma, Rahul Dave, Jyotsana Sanadya, Piush Sharma, K. K. Sharma
April-June 2010, 1(2):109-126
PMID:22247839
Now days, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Since last two decades, researches related to the breast cancer has lead to extraordinary progress in our understanding of the disease, resulting in more efficient and less toxic treatments. Increased public awareness and improved screening have led to earlier diagnosis at stages amenable to complete surgical resection and curative therapies. Consequently, survival rates for breast cancer have improved significantly, particularly in younger women. This article addresses the types, causes, clinical symptoms and various approach both non- drug (such as surgery and radiation) and drug treatment (including chemotherapy, gene therapy etc.) of breast cancer.
  9,427 1,297 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Development, characterization and solubility study of solid dispersions of azithromycin dihydrate by solvent evaporation method
SC Arora, PK Sharma, Raghuveer Irchhaiya, Anurag Khatkar, Neeraj Singh, Jagbir Gagoria
April-June 2010, 1(2):221-228
PMID:22247849
Azithromycin Dihydrate (Poorly water soluble drug), when prepared as solid dispersion showed improved solubility and dissolution. So the main purpose of this investigation was to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of Azithromycin Dihydrate by the preparation of its solid dispersion with urea using solvent evaporation method. Physical mixtures and solid dispersions of Azithromycin Dihydrate were prepared by using urea as water-soluble carrier in various proportions (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7 by weight), by employing solvent evaporation method. The drug release profile was studied and it was found that the dissolution rate and the dissolution parameters of the drug from the physical mixture as well as solid dispersion were higher than those of the intact drug. FT- IR spectra revealed no chemical incompatibility between drug and urea. Drug-polymer interactions were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD).
  7,982 802 2
Formulation and evaluation of S-(-)-Amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride tablets
SA Shaikh, SS Shaikh, SR Shahi, MA Shookur, LK Reddy, AN Padalkar, Mahesh Thube
April-June 2010, 1(2):199-206
PMID:22247846
The objective of the present study was to develop a tablet formulation of S-(-)­amlodipine besylate chiral separation drug and nebivolol hydrochloride for better management of hypertension, while reducing or avoiding undesirable adverse effects, which are often associated with administration of a racemic mixture of amlodipine. The composition containing the optically pure S-(-)- isomer of amlodipine 2.5 mg has calcium channel blocking activity and, nebivolol hydrochloride 5 mg has beta-receptor blocking activity. The study was also carried out to design a suitable dissolution medium for S-(-) - amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride. Amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride had maximum solubility in pH 1.2 and thus pH 1.2 was selected as the most suitable media for S-(-) - amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride dissolution studies. The RSD below 2% indicated insignificant batch-to-batch variation. The accelerated stability study of the optimized formulation was performed as the ICH guidelines. The results indicated no change in optical rotation of S-(-) - amlodipine besylate. Hence, combination of two drugs can be formulated into the tablet by wet granulation technique having satisfactory release profile.
  7,934 657 1
A simple and rapid method for simultaneous estimation of glycyrrhetinic acid and piperine by HPTLC in a herbomineral formulation
Ashish Trivedi, SH Mishra
April-June 2010, 1(2):190-198
PMID:22247845
Many of the traditional herbal formulations contain extracts of Piper longum and Glycyrrhiza glabrcy piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid respectively, being active constituents of these two herbs. An attempt has been made to develop a simple, precise, rapid, and cost-effective high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for simultaneous estimation of these in a herbomineral formulation (Efiplus® Capsules). Precoated silica gel 60 F254 plates with toluene-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid 12.5:7.5:0.5, as mobile phase were used in chromatographic determinations. The plates were scanned and the compounds were quantified at their wavelengths of maximum absorption of 260 and 331 nm for glycyrrhetinic acid and piperine respectively. The respective R, values of glycyrrhetinic acid and piperine were 0.51 and 0.55. Under these experimental conditions linearity was observed between 0.8-2.6 μg/ spot for glycyrrhetinic acid and between 10-50 ng/ spot for piperine and average recovery was 96.25% for glycyrrhetinic acid and 98.55% for piperine.
  6,875 442 3
Hypolipidemic activity of Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic rats
V Maruthappan, K Sakthi Shree
April-June 2010, 1(2):229-235
PMID:22247850
Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) family Combretaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. It is component of the classic Ayurvedic combination called "Triphala". Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogemc diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with Haritaki showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Haritaki was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Haritaki at 1.05 and 2.10 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.
  5,696 744 7
REVIEW ARTICLES
Novel drug delivery systems: Desired feat for tuberculosis
Kirtipal Kaur, Anuj Gupta, RK Narang, R.S.R. Murthy
April-June 2010, 1(2):145-163
PMID:22247841
Tuberculosis has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history and is currently the most devastating human bacterial disease. The ability to infect human population on a global scale, combined with the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, has led to the placement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) list of Biodefence and Emerging Infectious Disease Threats Agents. The resurgence of interest in tuberculosis (TB) has stemmed because of increased evidences from developed countries. Contrary to expectations, no country has reached the phase of elimination and in no subsection of society TB has been completely eliminated. A deeper understanding of the process will assist in the identification of the host and mycobacterial efforts involved and provide targets for therapeutic strategies against tuberculosis. The article presents a view on pathogenesis of tuberculosis and its diverse manifestations, host defense evasion, mechanisms of microbial persistence, emergence of Multiple Drug Resistance and Extensive Drug Resistance, conventional therapy used and the possible novel systems which are under extensive investigation as drug carriers for improving the cytosolic concentration of the anti-tubercular agents.
  5,720 513 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
In vitro cytotoxicity study of agave Americana, strychnos Nuxvomica and Areca catechu extracts using MCF-7 cell line
Chetan C Anajwala, Rajesh M Patel, Sanjay L Dakhara, Jitesh K Jariwala
April-June 2010, 1(2):245-252
PMID:22247852
Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nux­vomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC 50 value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Afeca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 μg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF­7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic.
  5,478 544 1
Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pyrazolone derivatives
G Mariappan, BP Saha, NR Bhuyan, PR Bharti, Deepak Kumar
April-June 2010, 1(2):260-267
PMID:22247854
In this article the antioxidant property of pyrazolones derivatives (PYZ1 to PYZ10) are reported. It was assessed by estimation of Malonaldehyde (MDA) and 4-Hydroxyl-2­noneal (4-HNE) as lipid peroxidation markers in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was compared with the standard ascorbic acid. Among synthesized derivatives PYZ2, PYZ3, PYZ7, PYZ8, PYZ9, and PYZ10 were found to have potent antioxidant effect against MDA marker. In case of 4-HNE, PYZ4, PYZ5, PYZ6, PYZ7, PYZ8, PYZ9 and PYZ10 were found to have effective antioxidant activity and the rest of the compounds are moderately active. Comparatively PYZ7, PYZ8, PYZ9 and PYZ10 are having effective role to control both MDA and 4-HNE generation. All the experimental data were statistically significant at p< 0.05 level. Interestingly, beyond its NSAID property, this study explores the protective role of pyrazolone derivatives in ischemic heart injury.
  4,107 428 12
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Various techniques for the evaluation of anti arthritic activity in animal models
Shivanand Pandey
April-June 2010, 1(2):164-171
PMID:22247842
Arthritis is an auto immune disorder characterized by pain, swelling and stiffness. Its prevalence depends upon age. It occurs more frequently in women than in men. It is an inflammation of synovial joint due to immuno mediated response. All anti inflammatory drugs are not anti arthritic because it does not suppress T-cell and B-cell mediated response. Epidemiological studies overall show a female to male ratio of about 3:1. There are many class of anti-arthritic drugs are available like NSAIDS, Monoclonal anti­bodies, uricosuric agents, gold compounds, anti-cytokinine immunosuppressant like glucocorticoids, etc. But this all class of drugs is responsible for symptomatic relief. To evaluate the drug which actually prevent cause of arthritic or act during various step of arthritis there is requirement of evaluative model which produce arthritis in (vial same that produce in humans. Animal models of arthritis are used to study pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate potential anti-arthritic drugs for clinical use. Therefore morphological similarities to human disease and capacity of the model to predict efficacy in humans are important criteria in model selection.
  3,873 477 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Pharmacognostic evaluation of Toona Ciliata bark
Ajay Gautam, Deenanath Jhade, Dheeraj Ahirwar, Manish Sujane, Ganesh N Sharma
April-June 2010, 1(2):216-220
PMID:22247848
Pharmacognostic standardizations of powdered and anatomical sections of the Toona ciliata bark was carried out to determine its macro- and microscopical characters and also some of its quantitative standards. Externally bark are Grey to reddish-brown in colour when it is dry, 200 mm in length, 20 to 60 mm in width and 2 to 3 mm in thickness outer surface brown coloured, strong odour, bitter taste, rough and hard, double quill and curved curvature. The transverse section (T. S.) revealed the presences of periderm, cortex, Sclerides, mednllary rays and phloem fiber. Physico-chemical evaluation includes ash values, extractive values and moisture content. These findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity, quality and classification of the plant, which is gaining relevance in plant drug research.
  3,875 374 5
Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial agents of the upper respiratory tract in south Indian population
K Kousalya, S Thirumurugu, DC Arumainayagam, R Manavalan, J Vasantha, C. Uma Maheswara Reddy
April-June 2010, 1(2):207-215
PMID:22247847
The study was aimed at determining bacterial agents of the upper respiratory tract and the susceptibility patterns of isolates to antibiotics. The throat swab samples from 250 patients suspected of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were obtained from the General Medicine outpatient department of a Rural Health Centre of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital (RMMC and H), Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamilnadu, India and inoculated in the culture medium. The bacterial infection was confirmed only in 228 patients. The organisms isolated on medium were identified by their cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. StaphzIocccus aureus was identified as the most prevalent bacterial isolate (45.61%) followed by β hemolytic streptococci (22.51%). Thirty four strains (14.91%) were identified as Klebsiella penumoniae, 19 (8.33%) as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the rest belonged to a hemolytic streptococci, Escherichia coli and Haemophitus influenzae. All Staphylococcus spp, were resistant to penicillin., ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. All the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The overall resistance rates were generally low for gentaruicin, cefixine and ceftazidime respectively.
  3,681 413 2
Formulation of furosemide solid dispersion with micro crystalline cellulose for achieve rapid dissolution
Rajanikant C Patel, Rajesh A Keraliya, Madhabhai M Patel, Natvarlal M Patel
April-June 2010, 1(2):180-189
PMID:22247844
Furosemide, a weekly acidic, loop diuretic drug indicated for treatment of edema and hypertension having high permeability through stomach. It is practically insoluble in gastric fluid (0.006 mg/ mL) and having highly permeability through stomach but due to its solubility limitation it can't enter into systemic circulation. It was logically decided to design experiment, so as to achieve the set objectives. Attempt was made to prepare solid dispersion of furosemide with Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 containing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as adsorbent which would dissolve completely in less than 30 minutes (target selected by considering minimum gastric empting time). Microcrystalline cellulose converted sticky dispersion in to free flow powder hence increase surface area which responsible for dissolution improvement. Factorial design was applied to optimize formulation. Amount of poly ethylene glycol 6000 and microcrystalline cellulose were selected as an Independent variable while angle of repose and T100% were selected as dependent variable. Attempts for dissolution rate of furosemide improve bioavailability and consequently dose reduction would possible.
  3,529 454 -
A preliminary study on the in vitro antioxidant activity of the stems of Opuntia vulgaris
Dilipkumar Pal, Sanmoy Mitra
April-June 2010, 1(2):268-272
PMID:22247855
The in vitro antioxidant activity of stems of Opuntia vulgaris Mill had been investigated by estimating degree of non-enzymatic haemoglobin glycosylation measured colorimetrically at 520 urn. It was found that benzene and chloroform extract of O. vulgaris had better antioxidant activity than petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was concentration dependent and comparable to that of D-α- tocopherol (vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), standard antioxidant compounds used.
  3,584 377 9
HPTLC method development and validation of trandolapril in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms
N Sreekanth, Bahlul Z Awen, Ch. Babu Rao
April-June 2010, 1(2):172-179
PMID:22247843
A simple, precise, accurate and rapid high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and completely validated for the estimation of trandolapril in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Quantification of trandolapril was carried out with percolated silica gel 60F254 as stationary phase using mobile phase consisting of Chloroform: Methanol: Acetic acid (8:1.5:0.5 v/ v/ v) and scanned in Absorbancei Reflectance mode at 212 nm using Camag TLC scanner 3 with WinCAT software. The Rf value of trandolapril was found to be 0.54 (±0.03). The proposed method has permitted the quantification of trandolapril over the linearity range of 25­150 ng/spot and its percentage recovery was found to 99.7%. The intraday and inter day precision were found to be 1.26% and 1.4%, respectively. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were found to be 18 ng/ spot and 54 ng/ spot, respectively. The proposed method can be successfully applied for the estimation of drug content of different marketed formulations simultaneously on a single plate and provides a faster and cost effective quality control tool for routine analysis of trandolapril as bulk drug and in tablet dosage forms.
  3,438 393 1
Studies on some physicochemical properties of Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum
Vijetha Pendyala, Chandu Baburao, KB Chandrasekhar
April-June 2010, 1(2):253-259
PMID:22247853
Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae) plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C). At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL) bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.
  3,206 304 1
Antimicrobial evaluation of novel substituted pyrimidinopyrazoles and pyrimidinotriazoles
HS Basavaraja, JE Nagamani, M M J Vijay kumar, Basavaraj Padmashali
April-June 2010, 1(2):236-244
PMID:22247851
Some novel substituted pyramidinopyrazoles and pyrimidinotriazoles have been synthesized by using 6-anisyl-5-cyan-2-hydrazine-3-N-methyl-3, 4-dihydropyrimidine­4-one as the starting material. Structures of these compounds have been established by IR, 1 H NMR, Mass and elemental analysis data and have been evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Significant antimi.crobial activity was observed for some members of these series.
  3,098 322 -
FROM THE EDITORS DESK
From the Editor's desk
Upendra Nagaich
April-June 2010, 1(2):0-0
PMID:22247856
  1,945 237 -
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