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   2010| January-March  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since November 2, 2010

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Antipsychotic activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora Cordifolia in amphetamine challenged mice model
Bindu nee Giri Jain, Vibhor Kumar Jain, Abhilasha Shete
January-March 2010, 1(1):30-33
Tinospora cordifolia is reported to have CNS active principle and is used for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Hence, the effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia was investigated for its putative antipsychotic activity using amphetamine challenged mice model. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) was administered acutely to mice as standard drug. Control animals received vehicle (10% DMSO). The in vivo receptor binding studies were carried out to correlate the antipsychotic activity of the extract with its capacity to bind to the DAD2 receptor. The results in SLA showed that the hydro alcoholic extract of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia at a dose level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed no significant antipsychotic activity in amphetamine induced hyperactivity in mice when compared to standard. Extract alone treated group at a dos level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed a decreased in locomotor activity when compared to the control. The plant extract increased the DAD2 receptor binding in a dose dependent manner in treated mice compared to the control group.
  6,324 536 3
The facts about penicillin allergy: A review
Sanjib Bhattacharya
January-March 2010, 1(1):11-17
Hypersensitivity reactions are the major problem in the use of penicillins. True penicillin allergy is rare with the estimated frequency of anaphylaxis at 1-5 per 10 000 cases of penicillin therapy. Hypersensitivity is however, its most important adverse reaction resulting in nausea, vomiting, pruritus, urticaria, wheezing, laryngeal oedema and ultimately, cardiovascular collapse. Identification of patients who erroneously carry β-lactam allergy leads to improved utilization of antibiotics and slows the spread of multiple drug-resistant bacteria. Cross-reactivity between penicillin and second and third generation cephalosporin is low and may be lower than the cross-reactivity between penicillin and unrelated antibiotics.
  5,943 912 1
Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf extract of Celosia Argentea in experimentally induced diarrhoea in rats
Praveen Sharma, Gali Vidyasagar, Sunder Singh, Santosh Ghule, Bimlesh Kumar
January-March 2010, 1(1):41-48
In order to scientifically apprise some of the anecdotal, folkloric, ethno medical uses of celosia argentea, the present study was undertaken to examine the antidiarrhoeal properties of alcoholic extract of leaves of Celosia argentea on diarrhoea by using different experimental models. Anti-diarrhoeal effect was evaluated by castor oil induced diarrhoea, charcoal meal test and PGE 2 induced diarrhoea. Loperamide (2 mg/kg) and atropine (0.1mg/kg) were used as standard drugs. Extract was used in 100 and 200 mg/kg dose. It produced dose related anti-diarrhoeal effect. Results suggest that it may act centrally and may inhibit the PGE2 to give anti-diarrhoeal effects. Result of charcoal meal test also suggests its anti-muscarinic activity.
  5,792 443 3
Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti­-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models
Shailly Gupta, Mathew George, Manmohan Singhal, Ganesh N Sharma, Vikas Garg
January-March 2010, 1(1):68-77
This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v) injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy's hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy's hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o). These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.
  4,735 533 8
Trouble shooting during bioanalytical estimation of drug and metabolites using LC-MS/MS: A review
Ganesh N Sharma, Man Mohan Singhal, KK Sharma, Jyotsana Sanadya
January-March 2010, 1(1):1-10
Bioanalysis frequently involves the measurement of very low analyte concentrations in complex and potentially variable matrices. An initial attempt has been made to apply a risk management tool to the bioanalytical method development like selection of spiked plasma volume, selection of internal standard to minimize processing error, selection of medium and extraction procedure, setting of mobile phase and pH, determination of chromatographic conditions etc. and to minimize instrumental error like; ion suppression and matrix effect.
  4,685 499 1
In Vivo rodent micronucleus assay of Gmelina Arborea Roxb (Gambhari) extract
Rohit Sahu, Goli Divakar, Kalyani Divakar
January-March 2010, 1(1):22-29
Gmelina arborea Roxb (family Verbenaceae) commonly known as 'Gambhari' tree, the various parts of the plants are widely used in diarrhoea, anti-pyretic, thirst, anemia, leprosy, ulcers, consumption, strangury, vaginal discharges. We tested the genotoxic potential of G. arborea in bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss albino mice using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Aqueous extract of G. arborea (AEGA) was tested at the dose of 286 & 667 mg/kg body weight (b. w.). Cyclophosphamide (CPZ) 25 mg/kg b. w. was used as positive control in micronucleus test. The AEGA significantly increased the % micronucleated polychrometics at doses of 286mg/kg and 667mg/kg, after 24, 48 72h time interval. And also decreased the PCE/NCE ratio after 24, 48 and 72 h as compared to solvent control group. In this study, we investigated the effect of G. arborea on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.
  4,077 428 -
In-Vitro characterization of gastroretentive microballoons prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method
Akash Yadav, Dinesh Kumar Jain
January-March 2010, 1(1):56-67
Microballoons floatable on JPXIII No.1 solution were developed as a dosage form capable of floating in the stomach. Microballoons were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method using enteric acrylic and other polymers with drug in a mixture of dichloromethane and ethanol. It was found that preparation temperature determined the formation of cavity inside the microsphere and the surface smoothness, determining the floatability and the drug release rate of the microballoons. The correlation between the buoyancy of microballoons and their physical properties, e.g. apparent density and roundness of microballoons were elucidated. The drug loading efficiency of microballoons was also determined. The optimum loading amount of metformin in the microballoons was found to impart ideal floatable properties to the microballoons. By fitting the data into zero order, first order and Highuchi model it was concluded that the release followed zero order release.
  3,530 509 5
Design and evaluation of a metronidazole central core matrix tablet
Upendra Nagaich, Vandana Chaudhary, SD Tonpay, Roopa Karki
January-March 2010, 1(1):88-96
In this paper, a study of different concentration of HPMC K 15 M exerts influence on the drug release process from a new controlled drug delivery system has been realized in order to obtain a constant release rate during a prolonged period of time, for a programmed drug release. The drug release profiles obtained for the different batches have shown an interesting relationship between the particle size of the channeling agent used and the length of different operational periods.
  3,549 481 1
Preliminary investigation on antipyretic activity of Cuscuta Reflexa in rats
Sanjib Bhattacharya, Bodhisattva Roy
January-March 2010, 1(1):83-87
In present study, the antipyretic activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Cuscutaceae) was evaluated using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Both the extracts at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight dose significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the increased rectal temperature. The extracts started reducing the elevated rectal temperature after 3 h of treatment in a dose related manner. At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight the aqueous and ethanol extract reduced 79 % and 83.8 % respectively of the elevated rectal temperature as compared to reference drug paracetamol (96.5 %) after 6 h of treatment. It was therefore concluded that both the extracts of C. reflexa demonstrated antipyretic activity, the ethanol extract was found to be slightly potent than the aqueous extract.
  3,600 323 1
A novel method for quantitative determination of aceclofenac in bulk drug and tablets using sodium salicylate as a hydrotropic solubilizing agent
RK Maheshwari, Shruti Moondra
January-March 2010, 1(1):78-82
In titrimetric analysis costlier organic solvents are more often employed to solubilize the poorly water-soluble drugs. Volatility and pollution are drawbacks of such solvents. Various techniques are employed to enhance the aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. Hydrotropic solubilization phenomenon has been widely used to enhance the aqueous solubility of large number of poorly water-soluble drugs. Aqueous solubility of aceclofenac bulk drug [a poorly water-soluble NSAID] was enhanced to a great extent i.e., 400 folds with 2.5 M sodium salicylate. The primary objective of the present investigation was to employ this hydrotropic solution to extract the drug from its dosage forms, precluding the use of costlier organic solvents. The proposed method of analysis is new, simple, accurate, environmentally friendly and reproducible. Statistical data proved the accuracy, reproducibility and the precision of the proposed method. The results of titrimetric analysis by use of hydrotropy compared very well with the results of Pharmacopoeial method.
  2,959 364 1
Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of Costus Speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice
Sanjib Bhattacharya, Upendra Nagaich
January-March 2010, 1(1):34-40
Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE) in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA) significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE) produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE) showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.
  2,927 341 4
Case report and clinical databased research study on malaria
Naitik D Trivedi, Upama N Trivedi, Anil Bhandari, Madhubhai M Patel, Nishant Upadhyay
January-March 2010, 1(1):18-21
  2,611 297 -
From the Editor's Desk
Upendra Nagaich
January-March 2010, 1(1):0-0
  1,803 251 -
Isolation and characterization of total volatile components from leaves of citrus limon linn.
Kadambari Tomer, Neeraj K Sethiya, Abhilasha Shete, Vijendra Singh
January-March 2010, 1(1):49-55
The isolation of the essential oil of whole fresh leaves of Citrus lemon by steam distillation is described. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by means of Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC), Column Chromatography (CC) and coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The 27 most important volatile components were identified. The volatile components were identified by comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with those of literature. Further identification was done by GC- MS. The components of the oil, percentage of each constituent, their RI values and their Eight Peak Index were also summarized and reviewed with standard available literature.
  1,741 170 -