Home  |  About JAPTR |  Editorial board  |  Search |  Ahead of print  |  Current issue  |  Archives |  Submit article  |  Instructions  |  Subscribe  |  Advertise  |  Contacts  |Login 
Users Online: 358   Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
     

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-27  

Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of some novel benzimidazole derivatives


Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, Andra Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication13-Feb-2014

Correspondence Address:
Immadisetty Sri Krishnanjaneyulu
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla - 522 101, Andra Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-4040.126983

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

A series of novel N-((1H-benzoimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4-(1-phenyl-5-substituted-4, 5-dihydro-1-benzoimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4-(1-phenyl-5-substituted-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine were synthesized by treating various 1-(4-((1H-benzoimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3-substitutedprop-2-en-1-one with phenyl hydrazine in the presence of sodium acetate through a simple ring closure reaction. The starting material, 1-(4-((1H-benzoimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3-substitutedprop-2-en-1-one,-benzoimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3-substitutedprop-2-en-1-one, was synthesized from o-phenylenediamine by a multistep synthesis. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic means and elemental analyses. The title compounds were investigated for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal properties against some human pathogenic microorganisms by employing the agar streak dilution method using Ciprofloxacin and Ketoconazole as standard drugs. All title compounds showed activity against the entire strains of microorganism. Structural activity relationship studies reveal that compounds possessing an electron-withdrawing group display better activity than the compounds containing electron-donating groups, whereas the unsubstituted derivatives display moderate activity. Based on the results obtained, N-((1H-benzoimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4-(1-phenyl-5-(4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine 5i was found to be very active compared with the rest of the compounds and standard drugs that were subjected to antimicrobial assay.

Keywords: Antibacterial, antifungal, chalcone, mannich base, pyrazole


How to cite this article:
Krishnanjaneyulu IS, Saravanan G, Vamsi J, Supriya P, Bhavana JU, Sunil Kumar MV. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of some novel benzimidazole derivatives. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2014;5:21-7

How to cite this URL:
Krishnanjaneyulu IS, Saravanan G, Vamsi J, Supriya P, Bhavana JU, Sunil Kumar MV. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of some novel benzimidazole derivatives. J Adv Pharm Technol Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Nov 24];5:21-7. Available from: https://www.japtr.org/text.asp?2014/5/1/21/126983


  Introduction Top


The diverse parasitic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, S. pyogenes,  Salmonella More Details typhimurium and  Escherichia More Details coli have significant impact on the mucosal health of humans. Infection with S. aureus, S. pyogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli may have resulted in massive destruction of host tissue and life-threatening diseases. These bacterial parasites cause food poisoning, rheumatic fever and diarrhea, which affect millions of individuals in developing countries. [1] More than 50 million people worldwide are infected and up to 1, 10, 000 of these die every year. Amoxicillin, Norfloxacin and Ciprofloxacin are the most commonly used drugs for this bacterial infection but are associated with severe side-effects. [2]

A continuous increase in the number of infections caused by bacteria resistant to one or multiple antibiotic classes poses a significant threat and may lead to treatment failures and complications. [3],[4] Therefore, significant efforts have been made by many research groups to find out new antimicrobial agents.

Benzimidazoles and their analogs are well-known biologically active N-containing heterocycles reported to possess various biological activities. [5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12] On the other hand, pharmacologically, pyrazole and its derivatives represent one of the most important classes of organic heterocyclic compounds possessing antibacterial, antifungal, herbicidal and antiviral activities. [13],[14],[15],[16] Some of its derivatives have been reported to exhibit significant anti-arrhythmic, sedative, hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities. [17],[18],[19],[20]

Based on these findings, and in continuation of our drug research program concerning synthesis of new, safer and more biologically active compounds, it was of interest to synthesize a new series of benzimidazole-coupled pyrazole derivatives with the hope to obtain more active and less-toxic antimicrobial agents.


  Materials and Methods Top


Chemistry

All solvents used were of laboratory grade and were obtained from SD Fine Chemicals (Mumbai, India) and Merck (Mumbai, India). Ciprofloxacin and Ketoconazole were received as gift samples from Dr. Reddys Laboratories, Hyderabad, India. Melting points were determined in open glass capillary tubes and were uncorrected. Compounds were routinely checked for their purity on Silica gel G (Merck) Thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates; iodine chamber and UV lamp were used for visualization of TLC spots. The IR spectra were recorded in KBr pellets on a BIO-RAD FTS FT-IR spectrophotometer. 1 H-NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker DPX-300 NMR spectrometer in CDCl 3 using tetramethylsilane (TMS) as an internal standard. The chemical shifts are reported on a ppm scale. Mass spectra were obtained on a JEOL-SX-102 instrument using electron impact ionization. Elemental analyses were performed on a Perkin Elmer model 2400 CHN analyzer and were within ±0.4% of the theoretical values.

General procedure for the synthesis of title compounds

Synthesis of benzimidazole (2)

Benzimidazole was prepared according to the reported literature. [21] Briefly, a mixture of o-phenylenediamine 1 (2.7 g, 0.025 mol) and 90% formic acid (1.56 g, 0.034 mol) was refluxed at 100°C for 2 h. The resulting solution was cooled and made alkaline to litmus with 10% sodium hydroxide solution. The product 2 obtained was filtered, washed with water and dried at 100°C. Yield 79%, m.p. 169-172°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3285 (NH), 3062 (Ar-CH). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 5.24 (s, 1H, NH), 7.18-7.89 (m, 5H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 118 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 7 H 6 N 2 : C, 71.17; H, 5.12; N, 23.71. Found: C, 71.35; H, 5.11; N, 23.65.

Synthesis of 1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl) ethanone (3)

Benzimidazole 2 (1.18 g, 0.01 mol) and p-aminoacetophenone (1.35 g, 0.01 mol) was dissolved in 40 mL of ethanol. To the above solution, formaldehyde (0.3 g, 0.01 mol) was added and stirred magnetically at room temperature for 3 h. Then, the resulting solution was refluxed on a water bath for 1 h and cooled in an ice bath. The product thus separated 3 was filtered, dried and crystallized from ethanol. Yield 72%, m.p. 145-147°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3270 (NH), 3079 (Ar-CH), 2953 (CH 3 -CH), 1697 (C = O). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.91 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 4.50 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.06 (s, 1H, NH), 7.05-8.14 (m, 9H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 265 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 16 H 15 N 3 O: C, 72.43; H, 5.70; N, 15.84. Found: C, 72.70; H, 5.68; N, 15.79.

Synthesis of 1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino)phenyl)-3- substitutedprop- 2-en-1-one (4a -4l)

A mixture of 1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl) ethanone 3 (2.65 g, 0.01 mol) and different aromatic aldehydes (0.01 mol) was dissolved in a minimum quantity of ethanol. To this, a few drops of 10% sodium hydroxide solution was added and stirred for 5 h and kept in a refrigerator for 24 h. Then, the reaction mixture was poured in crushed ice and stirred well. The product separated out 4a-4l was filtered, dried and recrystallized from ethanol.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- phenylprop-2-en-1-one (4a)

Yield 75%, m.p. 231-233°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3309 (NH), 3065 (Ar-CH), 2852 (CH 2 -CH), 1753 (C = O). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 4.15 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.21 (s, 1H, NH), 7.24-7.99 (m, 14H, Ar-CH), 8.32-8.50 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 353 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 23 H 19 N 3 O: C, 78.16; H, 5.42; N, 11.89. Found: C, 78.01; H, 5.44; N, 11.92.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- (4-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (4b)

Yield 79%, m.p. 184-186°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3272 (NH), 3077 (Ar-CH), 2878 (CH 2 -CH), 1745 (C = O). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.95 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 3.82 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.57 (s, 1H, NH), 7.08-8.14 (m, 13H, Ar-CH), 8.29-8.46 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 383 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 24 H 21 N 3 O 2 : C, 75.18; H, 5.52; N, 10.96. Found: C, 75.38; H, 5.50; N, 10.93.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- p-tolylprop-2-en-1-one (4c)

Yield 72%, m.p. 217-220°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3348 (NH), 3102 (Ar-CH), 2855 (CH 2 -CH), 1750 (C = O). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 3.22 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 4.38 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.33 (s, 1H, NH), 7.10-8.31 (m, 13H, Ar-CH), 8.37-8.64 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 367 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 24 H 21 N 3 O: C, 78.45; H, 5.76; N, 11.44. Found: C, 78.71; H, 5.74; N, 11.47.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- (4-aminophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (4d)

Yield 74%, m.p. 152-154°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3321 (NH), 3067 (Ar-CH), 2864 (CH 2 -CH), 1739 (C = O). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 3.67 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 4.49 (s, 2H, NH 2 ), 5.15 (s, 1H, NH), 6.82-7.98 (m, 13H, Ar-CH), 8.20-8.43 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 368 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 23 H 20 N 4 O: C, 74.98; H, 5.47; N, 15.21. Found: C, 74.75; H, 5.49; N, 15.26.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- (4-chlorophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (4e)

Yield 70%, m.p. 222-224°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3263 (NH), 3050 (Ar-CH), 2859 (CH 2 -CH), 1741 (C = O), 756 (C-Cl). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 3.90 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.79 (s, 1H, NH), 7.05-8.01 (m, 13H, Ar-CH), 8.17-8.32 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 389 [M +2 ]. Anal. Cald for C 23 H 18 ClN 3 O: C, 71.22; H, 4.68; N, 10.83. Found: C, 71.47; H, 4.67; N, 10.79.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (4f)

Yield 77%, m.p. 208-211°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3585 (OH), 3290 (NH), 3128 (Ar-CH), 2873 (CH 2 -CH), 1746 (C = O). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 4.24 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.57 (s, 1H, NH), 5.94 (s, 1H, OH), 7.20-8.16 (m, 13H, Ar-CH), 8.22-8.49 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 369 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 23 H 19 N 3 O 2 : C, 74.78; H, 5.18; N, 11.37. Found: C, 75.02; H, 5.19; N, 11.33.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- (4-fluorophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (4g)

Yield 75%, m.p. 195-197°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3256 (NH), 3043 (Ar-CH), 2880 (CH 2 -CH), 1757 (C = O), 1152 (C-F). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 4.05 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.88 (s, 1H, NH), 6.91-8.02 (m, 13H, Ar-CH), 8.15-8.36 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 371 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 23 H 18 FN 3 O: C, 74.38; H, 4.88; N, 11.31. Found: C, 74.10; H, 4.89; N, 11.34.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- (4-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (4h)

Yield 73%, m.p. 227-229°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3285 (NH), 3062 (Ar-CH), 2866 (CH 2 -CH), 1748 (C = O), 1520 and 1342 (NO 2 ). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 4.58 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.20 (s, 1H, NH), 7.19-8.25 (m, 13H, Ar-CH), 8.31-8.57 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 398 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 23 H 18 N 4 O 3 : C, 69.34; H, 4.55; N, 14.06. Found: C, 69.57; H, 4.54; N, 14.02.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- (4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (4i)

Yield 77%, m.p. 173-175°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3292 (NH), 3086 (Ar-CH), 2861 (CH 2 -CH), 1734 (C = O), 1145 (C-F). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 4.13 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.36 (s, 1H, NH), 7.00-8.03 (m, 13H, Ar-CH), 8.14-8.45 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 421 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 24 H 18 F 3 N 3 O: C, 68.40; H, 4.31; N, 9.97. Found: C, 68.61; H, 4.32; N, 9.94.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)- 5- phenylpenta-2,4-dien-1-one (4j)

Yield 81%, m.p. 201-203°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3314 (NH), 3059 (Ar-CH), 2876 (CH 2 -CH), 1738 (C = O). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 3.79 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.65 (s, 1H, NH), 7.26-8.27 (m, 14H, Ar-CH), 8.39-8.81 (m, 4H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 379 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 25 H 21 N 3 O: C, 79.13; H, 5.58; N, 11.07. Found: C, 79.40; H, 5.56; N, 11.05.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (4k)

Yield 72%, m.p. 179-181°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3551 (OH), 3277 (NH), 3114 (Ar-CH), 2889 (CH 2 -CH), 1752 (C = O). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 3.38 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.26 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.12 (s, 1H, NH), 5.73 (s, 1H, OH), 6.74-7.80 (m, 12H, Ar-CH), 8.03-8.38 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 399 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 24 H 21 N 3 O 3 : C, 72.16; H, 5.30; N, 10.52. Found: C, 71.95; H, 5.31; N, 10.55.

1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3- (3-nitrophenyl) prop- 2-en-1-one (4l)

Yield 71%, m.p. 213-215°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3338 (NH), 3095 (Ar-CH), 2870 (CH 2 -CH), 1743 (C = O), 1539 and 1336 (NO 2 ). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 4.41 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.44 (s, 1H, NH), 6.95-8.12 (m, 13H, Ar-CH), 8.29-8.46 (m, 2H, CH = CH). ESI-MS: m/z 398 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 23 H 18 N 4 O 3 : C, 69.34; H, 4.55; N, 14.06. Found: C, 69.56; H, 4.56; N, 14.08.

Synthesis of N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)- 4-(1-phenyl- 5-substituted-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine (5a-5l)

Title compound 5a-5l was synthesized by adding phenyl hydrazine (1.08 g, 0.01 mol) in fraction with the well-stirred mixture of 1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)- 3-substitutedprop-2-en-1-one 4a-4l (0.01 mol) in ethanol (25 mL). To this, a catalytic quantity of sodium acetate was added. The reaction mixture was then refluxed for a period of 10 h. Then, the reaction mixture was kept in a refrigerator for 24 h and poured in ice cold water with vigorous stirring. The products obtained 5a-5l were separated by filtration, washed with water, dried and recrystallized using ethanol to get the pure form.

N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)- 4- (1,5- diphenyl- 4,5- dihydro- 1H-pyrazol- 3-yl) benzenamine(5a)

Yield 73%, m.p. 214-216°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3292 (NH), 3087 (Ar-CH), 2865 (CH 2 -CH). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.64-2.86 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.41-3.75 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.62 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.47 (s, 1H, NH), 7.03-7.89 (m, 19H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 443 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 29 H 25 N 5 : C, 78.53; H, 5.68; N, 15.79. Found: C, 78.76; H, 5.66; N, 15.74.

N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4- (5- (4-methoxyphenyl)- 1-phenyl- 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol -3-yl) benzenamine (5b)

Yield 70%, m.p. 202-204°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3278 (NH), 3050 (Ar-CH), 2883 (CH 2 -CH). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.80 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 2.99-3.31 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.65-3.84 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.82 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.23 (s, 1H, NH), 7.14-8.06 (m, 18H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 473 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 30 H 27 N 5 O: C, 76.09; H, 5.75; N, 14.79. Found: C, 76.34; H, 5.73; N, 14.75.

N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4- (1-phenyl-5-p-tolyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine (5c)

Yield 77%, m.p. 188-191°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3303 (NH), 3079 (Ar-CH), 2860 (CH 2 -CH). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.97 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 3.02-3.25 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.40-3.69 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.56 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.51 (s, 1H, NH), 6.93-8.13 (m, 18H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 457 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 30 H 27 N 5 : C, 78.75; H, 5.95; N, 15.31. Found: C, 78.49; H, 5.96; N, 15.35.

N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4- (5-(4-aminophenyl)- 1-phenyl- 4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine (5d)

Yield 72%, m.p. 176-178°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3285 (NH), 3043 (Ar-CH), 2851 (CH 2 -CH). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.76-3.01 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.14-3.36 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.62 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 4.97 (s, 2H, NH 2 ), 5.35 (s, 1H, NH), 7.23-8.20 (m, 18H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 458 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 29 H 26 N 6 : C, 75.96; H, 5.71; N, 18.33. Found: C, 76.15; H, 5.70; N, 18.28.

N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4- (5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1- phenyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine (5e)

Yield 80%, m.p. 236-238°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3321 (NH), 3096 (Ar-CH), 2875 (CH 2 -CH), 779 (C-Cl). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 3.09-3.37 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.58-3.82 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.74 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.48 (s, 1H, NH), 7.06-8.31 (m, 18H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 479 [M + 2 ]. Anal. Cald for C 29 H 24 ClN 5 : C, 72.87; H, 5.06; N, 14.65. Found: C, 72.69; H, 5.08; N, 14.69.

4-(3-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-1- phenyl-4, 5-dihydro- 1H-pyrazol-5-yl) phenol (5f)

Yield 71%, m.p. 225-227°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3547 (OH), 3316 (NH), 3062 (Ar-CH), 2889 (CH 2 -CH). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.81-3.04 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.43-3.70 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.58 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.39 (s, 1H, NH), 5.85 (s, 1H, OH), 6.72-7.85 (m, 18H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 459 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 29 H 25 N 5 O: C, 75.80; H, 5.48; N, 15.24. Found: C, 75.97; H, 5.49; N, 15.21.

N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4- (5-(4-fluorophenyl)- 1-phenyl-4, 5-dihydro- 1H-pyrazol- 3-yl) benzenamine (5g)

Yield 75%, m.p. 209-211°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3265 (NH), 3041 (Ar-CH), 2868 (CH 2 -CH), 1132 (C-Cl). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.56-2.90 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.39-3.67 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.78 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.22 (s, 1H, NH), 7.15-8.14 (m, 18H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 461 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 29 H 24 FN 5 : C, 75.47; H, 5.24; N, 15.17. Found: C, 75.71; H, 5.23; N, 15.12.

N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4- (5-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-phenyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine (5h)

Yield 79%, m.p. 194-196°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3290 (NH), 3074 (Ar-CH), 2887 (CH 2 -CH), 1541 and 1316 (NO 2 ). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.78-3.02 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.66-3.91 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.65 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.57 (s, 1H, NH), 6.99-8.29 (m, 18H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 488 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 29 H 24 N 6 O 2 : C, 71.30; H, 4.95; N, 17.20. Found: C, 71.57; H, 4.94; N, 17.16.

N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)- 4- (1-phenyl-5- (4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-4 , 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine (5i)

Yield 74%, m.p. 230-233°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3302 (NH), 3058 (Ar-CH), 2850 (CH 2 -CH), 1124 (C-F). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.60-2.93 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.37-3.65 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.81 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.44 (s, 1H, NH), 7.28-8.32 (m, 18H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 511 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 30 H 24 F 3 N 5 : C, 70.44; H, 4.73; N, 13.69. Found: C, 70.21; H, 4.74; N, 13.72.

N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4- (1-phenyl-5-styryl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine (5j)

Yield 73%, m.p. 243-245°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3297 (NH), 3080 (Ar-CH), 2876 (CH 2 -CH). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 3.15-3.48 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.52-3.73 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.67 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.36 (s, 1H, NH), 6.81-7.96 (m, 19H, Ar-CH), 8.19-8.46 (m, 2H, -CH = CH-). ESI-MS: m/z 469 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 31 H 27 N 5 : C, 79.29; H, 5.80; N, 14.91. Found: C, 79.10; H, 5.82; N, 14.96.

4-(3-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-1 -phenyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-yl) -2-methoxyphenol (5k)

Yield 75%, m.p. 151-153°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3591 (OH), 3279 (NH), 3095 (Ar-CH), 2856 (CH 2 -CH). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.53 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 2.86-3.19 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.40-3.71 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.74 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.25 (s, 1H, NH), 5.60 (s, 1H, OH), 7.07-8.09 (m, 17H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 489 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 30 H 27 N 5 O 2 : C, 73.60; H, 5.56; N, 14.31. Found: C, 73.81; H, 5.55; N, 14.27.

N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4- (5-(3-nitrophenyl)-1-phenyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine (5l)

Yield 72%, m.p. 250-252°C. IR (KBr, cm -1 ): 3314 (NH), 3060 (Ar-CH), 2872 (CH 2 -CH), 1508 and 1325 (NO 2 ). 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 , 300 MHz) δ ppm: 2.57-2.96 (d, 2H, CH 2 of pyrazole), 3.35-3.59 (t, 1H, CH of pyrazole), 4.53 (s, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.50 (s, 1H, NH), 7.12-8.18 (m, 18H, Ar-CH). ESI-MS: m/z 488 [M + ]. Anal. Cald for C 29 H 24 N 6 O 2 : C, 71.30; H, 4.95; N, 17.20. Found: C, 71.54; H, 4.96; N, 17.15.

Antimicrobial activity

In this study, all the synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity by the agar streak dilution method. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was evaluated against four Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 155, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, and three Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2853 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 11298. The antifungal activity of the synthesized compounds were evaluated against two fungi, Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029 and Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 46645. Bacterial strains were cultured overnight at 37°C in Mueller Hinton broth, and the yeast was cultured overnight at 30°C in YEPDE agar for antibacterial and antifungal activity tests. Test strains were suspended in nutrient agar to give a final density of 5 × 10 -5 cfu/mL.

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)

The MIC of the compound was determined by the agar streak dilution method. [22] A stock solution of the synthesized compound in dimethyl formamide was prepared and graded quantities of the test compounds were incorporated in specified quantity of molten sterile agar (nutrient agar for antibacterial activity and Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium for antifungal activity). A specified quantity of the medium (40-50°C) containing the compound was poured into a  Petri dish More Details to give a depth of 3-4 mm and allowed to solidify. A suspension of the microorganism was prepared to contain approximately 5 × 10 -5 cfu/mL and applied to plates with serially diluted compounds in dimethyl formamide to be tested and incubated at 37°C for 24 h and 48 h for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The MIC was considered to be the lowest concentration of the test substance exhibiting no visible growth of bacteria or fungi on the plate. The observed MIC is presented in [Table 1].
Table 1: Minimum inhibitory concentration in ìg/mL of the synthesized compounds 5a-5l

Click here to view



  Results and Discussion Top


Chemistry

In the present work, a series of new N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4-(1-phenyl-5-substituted-4,5-dihydro- 1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine analogs 5a-5l were synthesized and characterized. In the first step, benzimidazole 2 was synthesized from o-phenylenediamine and formic acid by the ring closure reaction with a loss of two water molecules. In the next step, compound 2 was treated with p-aminoacetophenone and formaldehyde results in the corresponding Mannich base 3 by the Mannich reaction. Further treatment of compound 3 with different aromatic aldehydes in the presence of catalytic quantity of sodium hydroxide gave 1-(4-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methylamino) phenyl)-3-substitutedprop-2-en-1-one 4a-4l (a chalcone derivative) with elimination of water. Finally, the title compounds 5a-5l were synthesized by treating various chalcones 4a-4l with phenyl hydrazine in the presence of sodium acetate through a simple ring closure reaction. The chemical reactions involved in the synthesis of the title compounds are summarized in synthetic Scheme 1 [Additional file 1]. The method used for the preparation and isolation of the compounds gave materials of good purity, as evidenced by their spectral analyses and by TLC.

IR, 1 H-NMR, mass spectra and elemental analyses of the synthesized compounds are in accordance with the assigned structures. The IR spectra of all the synthesized compounds showed some characteristic peaks, indicating the presence of particular groups. Formation of benzimidazole 2 was confirmed by the appearance of a singlet at δ 5.24 ppm for one proton of benzimidazole NH. The presence of an absorption band in IR at 1697 cm -1 corresponding to C = O stretching confirms the formation of compound 3 . This was further confirmed by the appearance of a singlet at δ 2.91 ppm for three protons and a singlet at δ 4.50 ppm for two protons in its 1 H-NMR spectra, which might be assigned to CH 3 and CH 2 groups, respectively. Formation of compound 4a-4l was confirmed by the appearance of multiplet (double doublet) for two protons around δ 8.03-8.81 ppm in its 1 H-NMR spectra, which might be assigned to the CH = CH group of chalcones. 1 H-NMR spectra of compound 5a-5l showed a doublet peak at δ 2.56-3.48 ppm and triplet peak at δ 3.14-3.91 ppm corresponding to two protons of CH 2 (C-4) and one proton of CH (C-5) of pyrazole, confirming its formation.

Antimicrobial screening

All the title compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity by the agar streak dilution method. To control the sensitivity of the test organisms, the MICs of Ciprofloxacin and Ketoconazole were determined in parallel experiments. The MIC values were determined as the lowest concentration that totally inhibited visible growth of the microorganisms. The MICs of the test compounds 5a-5l and standard drugs is efficiently presented in [Table 1]. From the results, it was found that compound 5e, 5g and 5i (MIC: 15.62 μg/mL) displayed comparable activity like Ciprofloxacin against S. aureus. Compounds 5g and 5i displayed an equivalent activity (MIC: 7.81 μg/mL) against S. epidermidis, whereas the rest of the sequence displayed lesser activity (MIC: 15.62-62.5 μg/mL). Against M. luteus, compound 5i showed superior activity (MIC: 3.9 μg/mL) than standard drug, whereas compounds 5e and 5g exhibited comparable activity (MIC: 7.81 μg/mL) as Ciprofloxacin, while the others demonstrated trivial activity than the standard. Compounds 5g and 5i demonstrated equal activity (MIC: 7.81 μg/mL) as Ciprofloxacin, whereas the rest of the series exhibited shoddier activities than the standard against B. cereus. Compound 5i displayed potent activity (MIC: 7.81 μg/mL) than the standard, while the rest of the series exhibited lower activity against E. coli (MIC: 31.25-62.5 μg/mL) except 5e, 5g and 5h. Compounds 5e and 5g displayed an equivalent activity (MIC: 7.81 μg/mL) as standard against P. aeruginosa. None of the synthesized compounds displayed the same activity (MIC: 3.9 μg/mL) as Ciprofloxacin against K. pneumoniae. Against A. niger, except compound 5i, the rest of the compounds showed weaker activity (MIC: 31.25-125 μg/mL) than Ketoconazole. Compounds 5g and 5i showed comparable activity (MIC: 7.81 μg/mL) against A. fumigates, while the others had lower activity (MIC: 15.62-125 μg/mL) than the standard. Of the various tested derivatives, N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4-(1-phenyl-5-(4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine 5i was found to be the more potent compound. This compound exhibited better activity against M. leutus and E. coli, while it displayed equal activity as standard against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. cereus, A. niger and A. fumigatus.

Structural activity relationship (SAR)

From the antimicrobial studies, it was found that compounds 5e, 5g, 5h, 5i and 5l showed potent antimicrobial activity, which might be due to the presence of electron-withdrawing substituents like chloro, fluoro, nitro and trifluoromethyl groups on phenyl ring attached at the C-5 of the pyrazole nucleus. Compounds possessing electron-donating substituents like methoxy, methyl, amino and hydroxyl groups (5b, 5c, 5d, 5f and 5k) demonstrate less in vitro antimicrobial activity. SAR studies reveal that compounds possessing an electron-withdrawing group displayed better activity than the compounds containing electron-donating groups, whereas the unsubstituted derivatives displayed moderate activity. The SAR of the title compounds are schematically represented in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Schematic representation of SAR of title componds (5a-5l)

Click here to view



  Conclusion Top


With an aim of developing potent antimicrobial agent, a series of novel pyrazole-attached benzimidazoles were synthesized from o-phenylenediamine by the multistep reaction synthesis and characterized by FT-IR, 1 H-NMR, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. All the title compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity by the agar streak dilution method, and its MIC was determined against various strains of microorganisms. Results revealed that compounds containing an electron-withdrawing group at the phenyl group attached to C-5 of pyrazole displayed superior antimicrobial activities than compounds possessing an electron-releasing group. Moreover, the unsubstituted derivatives displayed moderate activity. Among several tested compounds, N-((1H-benzimidazol-1-yl) methyl)-4-(1-phenyl-5-(4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) benzenamine 5i showed better activity. Hence, this compound may serves as a lead molecule to obtain clinically useful antimicrobial agent.


  Acknowledgments Top


The authors gratefully acknowledge the management of Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, for providing infrastructure facilities to carry out this research work.

 
  References Top

1.Puertoa SA, Fernandeza GJ, Castillob LDJ, Jose M, Pinoa S, Anguloa PG. In vitro activity of β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics in extended spectrum β-lactamase producing clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2006;54:135-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Nolan CM, Chalhub GE, Nash GD, Yamauchi T. Treatment of bacterial meningitis with intravenous Amoxicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1979;16:171-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Beekmann SE, Heilmann KP, Richter SS, Garcia-de-Lomas J, Doern GV. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and group A β-haemolytic Streptococci in 2002-2003: Results of the multinational GRASP surveillance program. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005;25:148-56.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Spellberg B, Guidos R, Gilbert D, Bradley J, Boucher H, Scheld WT, et al. The epidemic of antibiotic resistant infections: A call to action for the medical community from the infectious diseases society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:155-64.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Preston PN. Synthesis, reactions and spectroscopic properties of benzimidazoles. Chem Rev 1974;74:279-314.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Kazimierczuk Z, Andrzejewska M, Kaustova J, Klimesova V. Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of 2-substituted halogenobenzimidazoles. Eur J Med Chem 2005;40:203-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Vinodkumar R, Vaidya SD, Siva Kumar BV, Bhise UN, Bhirud SB, Mashelkar UC. Synthesis, antibacterial, antiasthmatic and antidiabetic activities of novel N-substituted-2-(4-phenylethynyl-phenyl)-1H-benzimidazoles and N-substituted-2[4-(4,4-dimethyl-thio chroman-6-yl- ethynyl)-phenyl)-1H-benzimidazoles. Eur J Med Chem 2008;43:986-95.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Yun H, Baogen W, Yang J, Robinson D, Risen L, Ranken R, et al. 2-Piperidin-4-ylbenzimidazoles with broad spectrum antibacterial activities. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2003;13:3253-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Ozkay Y, Tunali Y, Karaca H, Isikdag I. Antimicrobial activity and a SAR study of some novel benzimidazole derivatives bearing hydrazones moiety. Eur J Med Chem 2010;45:3293-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Grassi A, Ippen J, Bruno M, Thomas G, Bay P. A thiazolylamino benzimidazole derivative with gastro protective properties in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 1991;195:251-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Ayhan-Kilcigil G, Altanlar N. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of some new benzimidazole derivatives. Farmaco 2003;58:1345-50.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]    
12.Boiani M, Gonzalez M. Imidazole and benzimidazole derivatives as chemotherapeutic agents. Mini Rev Med Chem 2005;5:409-24.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Iovu M, Zalaru C, Dumitrascu F, Draghici C, Moraru M, Criste E. New substituted 2-(pyrazol-1-yl)-dialkylacetanilides with potential local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic action. Part II. Farmaco 2003;58:301-7.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Mahajan RN, Havaldar FH, Fernandes PS. Syntheses and biological activity of heterocycles derived from 3-methoxy-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylate. J Indian Chem Soc 1991;68:245-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Levent S, Caliskan B, Ciftci M, Ozkan Y, Yenicesu I, Unver H, et al. Pyrazole derivatives as inhibitors of arachidonic acid induced platelet aggregation. Eur J Med Chem 2013;64:42-53.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Basavaraja HS, Nagamani JE, Vijay Kumar M, Padmashali B. Antimicrobial evaluation of novel substituted pyrimidinopyrazoles and pyrimidinotriazoles. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2010;1:236-44.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
17.Bruno O, Bondavalli F, Ranise A, Schenone P, Losasso C, Cilenti L, et al. 3,5-Diphenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives. V: 1-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-3, 5-diphenyl-2-pyrazoline esters, 4-hydroxy-3,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole esters and N- substituted-4-(3-amino-2-hydroxy-1-propoxy)- 1-methyl-3,5- diphenyl-1H-pyrazoles with antiarrhythmic, sedative and platelet antiaggregating activities. Farmaco 1990;45:147-66.  Back to cited text no. 17
[PUBMED]    
18.Cottineau B, Toto P, Marot C, Pipaud A, Chenault J. Synthesis and hypoglycemic evaluation of substituted pyrazole-4-carboxylic acids. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2002;12:2105-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
[PUBMED]    
19.Smith SR, Denhardt G, Terminelli C. The anti-inflammatory activities of cannabinoid receptor ligands in mouse peritonitis models. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;432:107-19.  Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]    
20.Basavaraja HS, Nagamani JE, Vijay Kumar MM, Padmashali B. Antimicrobial evaluation of novel substituted pyrimidinopyrazoles and pyrimidinotriazoles. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2010;1:236-44.  Back to cited text no. 20
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
21.Wagner EC, Millett WH. Benzimidazole. Organic Syntheses Coll 1943;2:65.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Hawkey PM, Lewis DA. Medical bacteriology-A practical approach. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press; 1994. p. 181-94.  Back to cited text no. 22
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]


This article has been cited by
1 Discovery and Optimization of Novel Pyrazole-Benzimidazole CPL304110, as a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors FGFR (1-3)
Abdellah Yamani,Daria Zdzalik-Bielecka,Joanna Lipner,Aleksandra Stanczak,Natalia Piórkowska,Paulina Seweryna Stanczak,Patrycja Olejkowska,Joanna Hucz-Kalitowska,Marta Magdycz,Karolina Dzwonek,Krzysztof Dubiel,Monika Lamparska-Przybysz,Defina Popiel,Jerzy Pieczykolan,Maciej Wieczorek
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2020; : 112990
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Cellular and biochemical antileukemic mechanisms of the meroterpenoid Oncocalyxone A
Aline Borba Sbardelotto,Francisco Washington Araújo Barros-Nepomuceno,Bruno Marques Soares,Bruno Coêlho Cavalcanti,Rayran Walter Sousa,Marcília Pinheiro da Costa,Otília Deusdênia Loiola Pessoa,Cláudia Pessoa,Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Evalution and Molecular Docking of Benzimidazole and its Derivatives as a Potent Antibacterial Agent
Kamatchi Chandrasekar,Bhawani Kumar,Arunkumar Saravanan,Ayush Victor,Saranya Sivaraj,Magesh Haridoss,Priyadurairaj Priyadurairaj,Catna Nagaraj Hemalatha,Vijey Aanandhi Muthukumar
Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. 2019; 12(04): 1835
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Novel Guanidine Compound against Multidrug-Resistant Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Bacterial Species
Aamer Saeed,Alejandra Bosch,Marisa Bettiol,Diana Nossa González,Mauricio Erben,Yanina Lamberti
Molecules. 2018; 23(5): 1158
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Synthesis and drug efficacy validations of racemic-substituted benzimidazoles as antiulcer/antigastric secretion agents
Rajesh Radhamanalan,Manikandan Alagumuthu,Narsimaiah Nagaraju
Future Medicinal Chemistry. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Synthesis, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activities of Some New 2-(3-fluorobenzyl)-1H -benzimidazole Derivatives
Hakan Bektas,Canan Albay,Bahar Bilgin Sökmen,Sinem Aydin,Emre Mentese,Gülbahar Aydin,Dilem Sen
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 In Vitro Studies on a Microfluidic Sensor with Embedded Obstacles Using New Antibacterial Synthetic Compounds (1-TDPPO) Mixed Prop-2-en-1-one with Difluoro Phenyl
Changhyun Roh,Jaewoong Lee,Mayank Kinger,Chankyu Kang
Sensors. 2017; 17(4): 803
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Green Microwave Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Novel Triazoles
Nadjet Rezki
Organic Preparations and Procedures International. 2017; 49(6): 525
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of novel isoxazole/pyrimidine/pyrazole substituted benzimidazole analogs
Krishna Veni Chikkula,Raja Sundararajan
Medicinal Chemistry Research. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Design and synthesis of novel 2-(5-(4-aryl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-1-(substituted aminomethyl)-1H-benzimidazole as potent anticonvulsants
Pullagura Mallikarjuna Krishna Prasad,Raja Sundararajan
Medicinal Chemistry Research. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Sterically Hindered N -Heterocyclic Salts Utilized as Antimicrobial Agents
Slindile N. P. Ndlovu,Halliru Ibrahim,Muhammad D. Bala
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Pyrrole Hetarylazoles Containing Benzimidazole/Pyrazolone/1,3,4-Oxadiazole Motifs
Bereket Mochona,Timothy Jackson,DeCoria McCauley,Elizabeth Mazzio,Kinfe K. Redda
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. 2015; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity ofp-tetranitrocalix[4]arene Derivative
Saba Muneer,Shahabuddin Memon,Qadeer Khan Panhwar,Faryal Khushik,Tahira Sarwar Khokhar,Agha Asad Noor
Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds. 2015; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological evaluation of certain sulfonamide containing heterocyclic motifs
Santosh Kumar Badampudi,Raghavendra Guru Prasad Aluru,Raveendra Reddy Papammagari,Ravindranath Lakshmana Rao Krishna Rao
Polish Annals of Medicine. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
   Results and Disc...
  Conclusion
  Acknowledgments
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3242    
    Printed60    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded603    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 14    

Recommend this journal