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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 200-201  

Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs

Department of Pharmacy, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication14-Dec-2012

Correspondence Address:
Ciddi Veeresham
Department of Pharmacy, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-4040.104709

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How to cite this article:
Veeresham C. Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2012;3:200-1

How to cite this URL:
Veeresham C. Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res [serial online] 2012 [cited 2021 Oct 17];3:200-1. Available from: https://www.japtr.org/text.asp?2012/3/4/200/104709

Nature, the master of craftsman of molecules created almost an inexhaustible array of molecular entities. It stands as an infinite resource for drug development, novel chemotypes and pharmacophores, and scaffolds for amplification into efficacious drugs for a multitude of disease indications and other valuable bioactive agents. Since time immemorial, natural products have been the backbone of traditional system of healing throughout the globe, and have also been an integral part of history and culture. Although the use of bioactive natural products as herbal drug preparations dates back hundreds, even thousands, of years ago, their application as isolated and characterized compounds to modern drug discovery and development started only in the 19 th century. It has been well documented that natural products played critical roles in modern drug development, especially for antibacterial and antitumor agents. Even though popularity of the synthetic products increased due to its production cost, time effectiveness, easy quality control, stringent regulation and quick effects, but their safety and efficacy was always remained questionable, resulting in the dependence on the natural products by more than 80% of the total population in the developing world, because of its time tested safety and efficacy. A huge number of natural product-derived compounds in various stages of clinical development highlighted the existing viability and significance of the use of natural products as sources of new drug candidates.

Until recently, plants were an important source of novel pharmacologically active compounds with many blockbuster drugs being derived directly or indirectly from plants. Despite the current preoccupation with synthetic chemistry as a vehicle to discover and manufacture drugs, the contribution of plants to disease treatment and prevention is still enormous. Even at the dawn of 21 st century, 11% of the 252 drugs considered as basic and essential by the WHO were exclusively of flowering plant origin.

Obviously natural products will continue to be extremely important as sources of medicinal agents. In addition to the natural products which have found direct medicinal application as drug entities, many others can serve as chemical models or templates for the design, synthesis, and semi synthesis of novel substances for treating humankind's diseases. Although there are some new approaches to drug discovery, such as combinatorial chemistry and computer-based molecular modeling design, and many drugs are made by synthetic chemistry, none of them can replaced the important role of natural products in drug discovery and development as most of the core structures or scaffolds for synthetic chemicals are based upon natural products.

According to Newman and Cragg 2012, the utility of natural products as sources of novel structures is still alive and well. Up to 50% the approved drugs during the last 30 years are from either directly or indirectly from natural products and in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to date, of the 175 small molecules 85 actually being either natural products or directly derived there from.

The use of plants as medicines has a long history in the treatment of various diseases. The plant-derived compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. To date, 35,000-70,000 plant species have been screened for their medicinal use. Plants especially those with ethnopharmacological uses have been the primary sources of medicine for early drug discovery. Fabricant and Farnsworth, (2001) reported that, 80% of 122 plant derived drugs were related to their original ethnopharmacological purposes. Current drug discovery from plants mainly relied on bioactivity-guided fractionation and led to isolation of many important anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, camptothecin etc.

The first commercial pure natural product introduced for therapeutic use is morphine marketed by Merck in 1826, and the first semi-synthetic pure drug aspirin, based on a natural product salicin isolated from Salix alba, was introduced by Bayer in 1899. This led to the isolation of early drugs such as cocaine, codeine, digitoxin, quinine and pilocarpine, of which some are still in use and several other recent plant derived compounds, which have undergone development and have been marketed as drugs which include Paclitaxel from Taxus brevifolia for lung, ovarian and breast cancer, Artemisinin from traditional Chinese plant Artemisia annua to combat multidrug resistant malaria, Silymarin extracted from the seeds of Silybum marianum for the treatment of liver diseases.

There is growing evidence that the old molecules are finding new applications through better understanding of molecular biology and clinical observations. For instance, the alkaloid, forskolin from Coleus forskohlii and phytochemicals from Stephania glabra, are now being rediscovered as adenylate cyclase and nitric oxide activators, which may help in preventing conditions including obesity and atherosclerosis.

During the last decade few plant derived drugs have been launched include Arteether, endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone and semisynthetic natural product derived from Artemisinin used in malarial treatment, Nitisinone derived from natural product Leptospermone (Callistemon citrinus) is used in treatment of antityrosinaemia, galantamine is a natural alkaloid (obtained from Galanthus nivalis) for Alzhemer's, apomorphine is a semisynthetic compound derived from morphine (Papaver somniferum) used in Parkinson's disease, Tiotropium a derivative of atropine from Atropa belladonna in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Dronabinol and Cannabidiol obtained from cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa) and Capsaicin active compound from Capsicum annuum are used as pain relievers.

Natural products discovered so far have played a vital role in improving the human health and have been the drugs of choice despite facing a tough competition from compounds derived from computational and combinatorial chemistry, due to their safety and efficacy. The most striking feature of natural products in connection to their long lasting importance in drug discovery is their structural diversity that is still largely untapped.

Revitalization of the natural products is bringing newer challenges with respect to quality control and standardization along with cost effectiveness. The renewed interest in the development of natural products requires the confluence of the modern techniques and harmonization of regulations related to their research and development between various fields of science.

   Authors Top

Prof. (Dr.) Ciddi Veeresham

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67 A yeast platform for high-level synthesis of tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids
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68 Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Belladonna
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70 Untargeted Characterization of Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Shell Polyphenol Extract: A Valued Bioresource for Prostate Cancer Cell Growth Inhibition
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71 Urolithin A Induces Brown-like Phenotype in 3T3-L1 White Adipocytes via ß3-adrenergic Receptor-p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway
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72 cis-9-Hexadecenal, a Natural Compound Targeting Cell Wall Organization, Critical Growth Factor, and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus
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74 Genista tridentata L.: A Rich Source of Flavonoids with Anti-Inflammatory Activity
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77 Inhibitory potential on key enzymes relevant to type II diabetes mellitus and antioxidant properties of the various extracts and phytochemical constituents from Rumex acetosella L
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78 Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of Phytochemicals in the Human Body
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79 Hispolon: A natural polyphenol and emerging cancer killer by multiple cellular signaling pathways
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80 Davilla elliptica (Dilleniaceae) a. St.-Hil. Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects: A review
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82 Antiproliferative activity of new pentacyclic triterpene and a saponin from Gladiolus segetum Ker-Gawl corms supported by molecular docking study
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83 Calotropis - A multi-potential plant to humankind: Special focus on its wound healing efficacy
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84 Lead Compounds in the Context of Extracellular Vesicle Research
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85 Traditional and Herbal Medicines: Understanding & Exploration (Part II)
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86 Ethnobotanical Description and Biological Activities of Senna alata
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87 Antioxidant properties of the Lebanese plantIrisxgermanicaL. crude extracts and antagonism of chlorpromazine toxicity onSaccharomyces cerevisiae
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89 Generation of A Stable GFP-reporter Zika Virus System for High-throughput Screening of Zika Virus Inhibitors
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90 Antimicrobial activity of Plumbago indica and ligand screening of plumbagin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
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91 Therapeutic potential of sulfur-containing natural products in inflammatory diseases
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92 Synthesis and Properties of CurNQ for the Theranostic Application in Ovarian Cancer Intervention
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93 Phytochemicals as Anti-Inflammatory Agents in Animal Models of Prevalent Inflammatory Diseases
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94 Hepatoprotective and hematological effects of Justicia secunda Vahl leaves on carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in rats
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95 Constituents of essential oil of Origanum minutiflorum and its in vitro antioxidant, scolicidal and anticancer activities
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96 Investigation of the Biological Activities of Different Extracts from Dipsacus laciniatus Aerial Parts
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97 Biochanin A: A novel bioactive multifunctional compound from nature
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98 Phytochemicals and biological activities of species from the genus Maytenus
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99 Prevention of Oxidative Stress-Induced Pancreatic Beta Cell Damage by Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold Fruit Extract via the ERK-Nox4 Pathway
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100 Assessment of the Pharmacological Properties and Phytochemical Profile of Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam Using In Vitro Studies, In Silico Docking, and Multivariate Analysis
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101 Anti-diabetic potential of plant alkaloids: Revisiting current findings and future perspectives
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102 Antioxidant Potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. roots: In-Vitro Evidences
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103 Nanocapsules Containing Saussurea lappa Essential Oil: Formulation, Characterization, Antidiabetic, Anti-Cholinesterase and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials
Narimane Lammari,Tanguy Demautis,Ouahida Louaer,Abdeslam Hassen Meniai,Herve Casabianca,Chawki Bensouici,Gilles Devouassoux,Hatem Fessi,Abderrazzak Bentaher,Abdelhamid Elaissari
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104 Sugiol, a diterpenoid: Therapeutic actions and molecular pathways involved
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105 Bioassay-guided isolation of antiplasmodial and antimicrobial constituents from the roots of Terminalia albida
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106 In Silico Identification of New Targets for Diagnosis, Vaccine, and Drug Candidates against Trypanosoma cruzi
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107 In vitro antimitotic and cytotoxic potential of plant extracts: a comparative study of Mucuna pruriens, Asteracantha longifolia and Sphaeranthus indicus
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108 Production of plant natural products through engineered Yarrowia lipolytica
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109 Resveratrol encapsulation in high molecular weight chitosan-based nanogels for applications in ocular treatments: Impact on human ARPE-19 culture cells
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110 Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora of Harighal, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan
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111 Chelerythrine Chloride Downregulates ß-Catenin and Inhibits Stem Cell Properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
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112 Use of Natural Components Derived from Oil Seed Plants for Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases
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113 Morelloflavone as a novel inhibitor of mitotic kinesin Eg5
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114 Cutting-Edge Search for Safer Opioid Pain Relief: Retrospective Review of Salvinorin A and Its Analogs
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115 Casticin-Induced Inhibition of Cell Growth and Survival Are Mediated through the Dual Modulation of Akt/mTOR Signaling Cascade
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116 Deciphering the Antibacterial Mode of Action of Alpha-Mangostin on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A Through an Integrated Transcriptomic and Proteomic Approach
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117 Phenolic Profiling and Biological Potential of Ficus curtipes Corner Leaves and Stem Bark: 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition and Interference with NO Levels in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages
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118 Isolation, Characterization and Assessment for Central Nervous System Effects of Novel Phytomolecule from Galphimia glauca Cav. Stems
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119 Phytochemical Profiling of Coryphantha macromeris (Cactaceae) Growing in Greenhouse Conditions Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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120 Progress in the discovery of naturally occurring anti-diabetic drugs and in the identification of their molecular targets
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121 In silico identification of mimicking molecule(s) triggering von Willebrand factor in human: a molecular drug target for regulating coagulation pathway
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122 Pharmacokinetics of thymoquinone in layer chickens following oral and intravenous administration
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123 Oral Acute and Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of Valepotriates from Valeriana glechomifolia (Meyer) in Mice
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124 Effects of Hydroalcoholic Flower Extract of Marigold (Calendula officinalis) on the Biochemical and Histological Parameters in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats
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125 Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Against Candida Species Isolated from Clinical Samples
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126 Cytotoxic Potential and Phytochemical Profile of Extracts from Garcinia rubra Merr. Leaves
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127 Medicinal Plant Compounds for Combating the Multi-drug Resistant Pathogenic Bacteria: A Review
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128 The Promising Role of Plant Tannins as Bioactive Antidiabetic Agents
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129 Evaluating Iso-Mukaadial Acetate and Ursolic Acid Acetate as Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine-Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitors
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130 Cannabis medicinal, más que una encrucijada legal para el tratamiento de la epilepsia
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131 At-Line Monitoring of the Extraction Process of Rosmarini Folium via Wet Chemical Assays, UHPLC Analysis, and Newly Developed Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis Methods
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132 Status and future scope of plant-based green hydrogels in biomedical engineering
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133 The genus Laggera (Asteraceae) – Ethnobotanical and Ethnopharmacological Information, Chemical Composition as well as Biological Activities of Its Essential Oils and Extracts: A Review
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134 Pharmacotherapeutics and Molecular Mechanism of Phytochemicals in Alleviating Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer
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135 Accessing to the Nicotiana tabacum leaf antimicrobial activity: In-silico and in-vitro investigations
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136 Crystal structure and in vitro antimicrobial activity studies of Robustic acid and other Alpinumisoflavones isolated from Millettia thonningii
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137 Larrea tridentata Extract Mitigates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cytotoxicity in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells
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138 Essential oil yield estimation by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation in in vitro cultivated tissues of Coriandrum sativum L.
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140 Protective Effects of Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold Fruit Extract against Palmitate-Induced Lipotoxicity in Mesangial Cells
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141 Another look at phenolic compounds in cancer therapy the effect of polyphenols on ubiquitin-proteasome system
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142 Inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilm and Cytotoxicity Study of Natural Compound Cis-9-Hexadecenal
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