Home  |  About JAPTR |  Editorial board  |  Search |  Ahead of print  |  Current issue  |  Archives |  Submit article  |  Instructions  |  Subscribe  |  Advertise  |  Contacts  |Login 
Users Online: 204   Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 24-29  

Antibacterial activity of some Indian ayurvedic preparations against enteric bacterial pathogens

Department of Microbiology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, India

Date of Web Publication21-Apr-2011

Correspondence Address:
D H Tambekar
Department of Microbiology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati-444 602
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-4040.79801

Rights and Permissions

In Ayurveda, various herbal preparations are clinically used to prevent or cure infectious diseases. Herbal preparations such as Triphala churna, Hareetaki churna, Dashmula churna, Manjistadi churna, Sukhsarak churna, Ajmodadi churna, Shivkshar pachan churna, Mahasudarshan churna, Swadist Virechan churna and Pipramool churna were investigated by preparing their organic solvent extract for antibacterial potential against enteric bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Proteus vulgaris, respectively. In the present study, Triphala churna, Hareetaki churna, Dashmula churna were potent antibacterial agents against S. epidermidis, P. vulgaris, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi. The study supports the use of these herbal preparations not only as dietary supplements but also as agents to prevent or control enteric bacterial infections.

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, dashmula churna, hareetaki churna, triphala churna

How to cite this article:
Tambekar D H, Dahikar S B. Antibacterial activity of some Indian ayurvedic preparations against enteric bacterial pathogens. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2011;2:24-9

How to cite this URL:
Tambekar D H, Dahikar S B. Antibacterial activity of some Indian ayurvedic preparations against enteric bacterial pathogens. J Adv Pharm Technol Res [serial online] 2011 [cited 2023 Feb 2];2:24-9. Available from: https://www.japtr.org/text.asp?2011/2/1/24/79801

   Introduction Top

In Ayurvedic medicine, many medicinal plants are useful in strengthening human health care system and the formulations based on such medicinal plants play an important role in modern medicine. [1] Ayurvedic practitioners also identified a number of herbal preparations for curing various ailments and diseases. [2] The primary benefits of using plant-derived medicine are relatively safer than synthetic drugs and offer profound therapeutic benefits. [3] Single and polyherbal preparations have diverse range of bioactive molecules and play a dominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. [4] More than 1500 herbal preparations are sold as dietary supplements or ethnic traditional medicines. [5] The most frequently used type of herbal preparations are churnas. Churnas are preparations comprising of fine powders of medicinal plants and may be single or in combination. Combinations of medicinal plants may increase the antimicrobial spectrum and potency of the preparations. Enteric or diarrheal infections are major public health problems in developing countries and contribute to the death of 3.3-6.0 million children annually. Enteric bacteria comprised of  Salmonella More Details sp., Shigella spp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp.,  Escherichia More Details coli, Pseudomonas sp., Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus are the major etiological agents of sporadic and epidemic diarrhea both in children and adults. [6] Recently, it has been demonstrated that many human pathogenic bacteria have developed resistance against several synthetic drugs. [7],[8],[9] There are several reports on antimicrobial activity of crude extracts prepared from plants that inhibit various bacterial pathogens, but a limited numbers of in vitro studies on herbal preparations have been published. It is need of the hour to identify antibacterial potential of herbal products based on diseases for which no medicine or only palliative therapy is available. [10],[11] Hence an attempt was made to screen the antibacterial potential of herbal preparations in the control prevention of enteric bacterial infection.

   Materials and Methods Top

The commercial herbal preparations as given in [Table 1] were purchased from the local market of Amravati. These herbal preparations have multiple botanical ingredients in addition to some chemical substances.
Table 1: Herbal preparation tested for antibacterial potential

Click here to view

Preparation of Extracts

The aqueous extract was prepared by adding 20 g of herbal preparations in 200 mL distilled water, boiled on low heat for 2 h, filtered through cloth and filtrate was evaporated to dry on sand bath. The organic solvent extracts were separately prepared by adding 20 g herbal preparation (powder) in 200 mL of respective organic solvent (acetone, ethanol and methanol) in screw-capped bottles, shaked at 190-220 rpm on a rotary shaker. After 24 h of shaking, it was filtrated, evaporated in vacuum and dried by rotary evaporator at 60 o C. [12] Dried extracts were stored in labeled sterile screw capped bottles at 4 o C and later used in vitro study.

Bacterial Cultures

The standard pathogenic bacterial cultures were procured from IMTECH, Chandigarh, India and used in the present study. The bacteria rejuvenated in Mueller-Hinton broth (Hi-media laboratories, Mumbai, India) at 37oC for 18 h and then stocked at 4oC in Mueller-Hinton Agar. Subcultures were prepared from the stock for bioassay. The inoculum size of the bacterial culture was standardized according to the National committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards [13] guideline. The pathogenic bacterial culture was inoculated into sterile nutrient broth and incubated at 37oC for 3 h until the culture attained a turbidity of 0.5 McFarland units. The final inoculum size was standardized to 10 5 CFU/mL with the help of SPC and Nephlo-turbidometer.

Preparation of Disc for Antibacterial Activities

The aqueous, ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts were prepared in their respective solvents and the sterile blotting paper disc (10 mm) were soaked in the diluted extract in such concentration that the amount of solution absorbed by each disc 5 mg of each extracts of herbal preparations. The prepared disc were dried in controlled temperature to remove excess of solvent and used for study.

Antibacterial Activity Using Disc Diffusion Method

The modified paper disc diffusion [13] was employed to determine the antibacterial activity of both aqueous and organic extract of the herbal preparations. In each test tube turbidity of inoculum was matched with McFarland turbidity standard. Inoculum was spread over the nutrient agar plate using a sterile cotton swab in order to obtain uniform microbial growth. Then the prepared antibacterial discs were kept over the lawn and pressed slightly along with positive and negative control. Ampicillin 10 mcg/disc (Hi-Media) were used as positive control while disc soaked in sterile distilled water and various organic solvents and dried were placed on lawns as negative control. The plates were incubated for 18 h at 37oC. The antibacterial activity was evaluated for 5 mg/disc and diameter of inhibition zones were measured. Experiment was carried out in triplicate and the averages diameter of zone of inhibition was recorded. The antibacterial activity was classified as highly active (>20 mm), mild active (15-20 mm) and slightly active (12-15 mm) and less than 12 mm was taken as inactive. Antimicrobial Sensitivity Index (ASI) was calculated by following formula:

   Results and Discussion Top

In the present study, the samples namely Triphala churna, Hareetaki churna, Dashmula churna, Manjistadi churna, Sukhsarak churna, Ajmodadi churna, Shivkshar pachan churna, Mahasudarshan churna, Swadist Virechan churna and Pipramool churna were tested for their antibacterial properties against the various bacterial pathogens [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Antibacterial potential of herbal preparations

Click here to view

Results showed that Triphala churna possess strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus while moderate against Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and weak against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis. Acetone and methanol extracts of Hareetaki churna was strong antibacterial agents against S. epidermidis, S. aureus at 5 mg/disc while moderate against B. subtilis, P. vulgaris, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and mild against K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, S. typhimurium and E. coli. Hareetaki churna is used as mild laxative, detoxifier and improve digestive functions. Herbs used in Hareetaki churna possess antibacterial properties; Terminalia chebula antibacterial against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris, S. epidermidis, S. typhi, S. typhimurium [14],[15],[16] and methicilin-resistant S. aureus.[17] Mahasudarshan churna is an excellent remedy for the complication associated with fever, liver enlargement, spleen, fatigue and nausea, etc. Holarrhena antidysenterica is one of the important ingredients of Mahasudarshan churna has reported antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. flexneri, S. typhosa, B. subtilis.[18],[19] Studies have indicated the antibacterial potential of Mahasudarshan churna against S. typhi, S. epidermidis, E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris and P. aeruginosa [Table 2]. Mahasudarshan churna is useful to control infectious diseases such as typhoid fever, intestinal infection, urinary tract infections and respiratory infection which are associated with the above-mentioned bacterial pathogens.
Table 2: Antibacterial activities of herbal preparation against various bacterial pathogens

Click here to view

Methanol and acetone extracts of Ajmodadi churna were strong antibacterial agents against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. typhi, B. subtilis, E. coli and P. vulgaris while aqueous extract was less antibacterial. Ajmodadi churna is rich formulation of carminative and antispasmodic herbal ingredients. All the ingredients of Ajmodadi churna such as Trachyspermum ammi is carminative, antispasmodic and antibacterial against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. [20],[21] Plumbago zeylanica is antibacterial against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. [22] Sukhsarak churna is a laxative and blood purifier, useful in digestive and liver disorder. In present study it was found strong antibacterial against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. typhi and P. vulgaris. Methanol extract of Swadist Virechan churna was a strong antibacterial agent against S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis [Figure 1]. The use of Swadist Virechan churna may be helpful to reduce bacterial infections caused by above test pathogens. Manjistadi churna indicated as alterative and blood purifier, useful in fever. Study indicated that Manjistadi churna was antibacterial against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, P. vulgaris, S. typhi and E. aerogenes. Dashmula churna is a herbal preparation of 10 important medicinal plants [Table 1]. Study also proved the antibacterial potential of Dashmula churna against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, P. vulgaris, S. typhi, B. subtilis, E. coli, K. pneumonia, E. aerogenes and P. aeruginosa and useful in treatment of the bacterial infections [Table 2]. Almost all the ingredients of Dashmula churna were reported as potent antibacterial agent against various bacterial pathogens. Aegle marmelos, an important ingredient of Dashmula churna root, have antibacterial properties against V. cholerae, E. coli and Shigella sp. [23] Pipramool churna was also showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, B. subtilis and P. vulgaris. Shivkshar Pachan churna is the fortified form of Hingwashtak churna. Ferula asafetida is an important ingredient of Shivkshar Pachan churna and reported as antibacterial agent against Bacillus megaterium, B. subtilis, L. acidophilus, M. luteus, S. epidermidis, S. aureus, E. coli, S. typhi and S. flexneri. [24],[25] Present study indicated that both the aqueous and organic extracts of Shivkshar Pachan churna is potent antibacterial agent against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and P. vulgaris. Thus clinically used herbal preparations proved to posses antibacterial potential against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. typhimurium. Hence diseases caused by test organism such as skin infections (impetigo, folliculitis), invasive diseases (wound infections, osteomyelitis, bacteremia), wound infection, urinary tract infections, endocarditis, septicemia, respiratory tract infection, eye infections, etc. may be prevented or controlled by the use of above tested ayurvedic preparations.

   Conclusions Top

Our findings suggested that, ayurvedic herbal preparations extracts have great potential as antimicrobial activity against enteric bacterial pathogens and they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases. The data obtained in these studies justify the use of these ayurvedic herbal preparations in medical practice by majority of the populations in India. The study also supports the use of these herbal preparations not only as the dietary supplement but also as agent to prevent or control the enteric bacterial infections.

   References Top

1.Patwardhan B, Vaidya AD, Chorghade M. Ayurveda and natural product drug discovery. Curr Sci 2003;86:789-99.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Pandey MM, Rastogi S, Rawat AK. Indian herbal drug for general healthcare: An overview. Int J Alter Med 2008;6:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Barrett B Kiefer D, Rabago D. Assessing the risk and benefits of herbal medicine: An overview of scientific evidence. Alter Health Med 1999;5;40-9.   Back to cited text no. 3
4.Handa SS. Indian efforts for quality control and standardization of herbal drugs/products. Proceedings of the 1st joint workshop on quality control and standardization of traditional medicine-Indo-China experience; 2004.   Back to cited text no. 4
5.WHO, General guidelines for methodologies on research and evaluation of traditional medicine. Geneva: World Health Organization ; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.WHO. 5th Programme Report, Programme for control of diarrhoeal diseases, Geneva. WHO Bull 1985;63:557-772.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Vickers A, Zollman C. ABC of complementary medicine: Herbal medicine. BMJ 1999;319:1050-3.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.De Smet PA. Herbal remedies. N Engl J Med 2002;347:2046-56.   Back to cited text no. 8
9.Dawson W. Herbal medicine and the EU directive. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2005;35:25-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Greensfelder L. Alternative medicine: Herbal product linked to cancer. Science 2000;280:1946-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Patwardhan B, Warude D, Pushpangadan P, Bhatt N. Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine: A comparative overview. CAM 2005;2:465-73.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Parekh J, Chanda S. In vitro screening of antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of various Indian plant species against selected pathogens from Enterobacteriaceae. Afr J Microbiol Res 2007;1:92-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards). Performance Standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 8 th Informational Supplement. M100S12. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Villanova, Pa: 2002.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Tambekar DH, Khante BS, Dahikar SB, Banginwar YS. Antibacterial properties of contents of Triphala: A traditional Indian herbal preparation. Continental J Microbiol 2007;1:8-12.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Kim HJ, Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Tohda C, Rao TP, Juneja LR. Influence of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on hypocholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation in cholesterol-fed rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2005;51:413-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Rani P, Khullar N. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their antienteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Phytother Res 2004;18:670-3.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Sato Y, Oketoni H, Singyouchi K. Extractions and purifications of effective antimicrobial constituents of Terminalia chebula Retz against methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biol Pharma Bull 1997;20:401-4.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Satyavati GV, Gupta K, Tandan N. Medicinal plants of India, Vol.2, New Delhi: Indian Council of Medicinal Research; 1987.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Aslokar LV, Kakkar KK, Chakre OJ. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants with active principles, Part I (A-K, Second supplement), (1965-81). Publications and Information's Directorate (CSIR), New Delhi: 1992.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Syed M, Sabir AW, Chaudhary FM, Bhatty MK. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of umbelliferae part II-Trachyspermum ammi, Daucus carota, Anethum graveolens and Apium graveolens. Pak J Sci Indig Res 1986;28:189-92.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Arora DS, Kaur GJ. Antibacterial activity of some Indian medicinal plants. J Nat Med 2007;61:313-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Shafiqur M, Rahman, Anwar MN. Antimicrobial activity of crude extract obtained from the root of Plumbago zeylanica Bangladesh. J Microbiol 2007;24:73-5.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Mazumder R, Bhattacharya S, Mazumder A, Pattnaik AK, Tiwary PM, Chaudhary S. Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of Aegle Marmelos (Correa) Linn. root extract. Phytother Res 2006;20:82-4.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Rahman MU, Gul S, Ejaz AO. Antimicrobial activities of Ferula assafoetida oil against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. J Agri Env Sci 2008;4:203-6.   Back to cited text no. 24
25.Bhatnagar SS, Santapau H, Desa JD, Mamar AC, Ghadielly NC, Solomon MJ, et al. Biological Activity of Indian Medicinal Plants: Part I. Anti-bacterial, anti-tubercular, and anti-fungal action. Indian J Med Res 1961;49:799-813.  Back to cited text no. 25


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Estimation of eugenol in different tulsi ayurvedic formulations by RP-HPLC method
Sreenivasa Charan Archakam, Keerthisikha Palur, Mohan Krishna Yerragunta, Bhaskar Kuruba Pujari
IP International Journal of Comprehensive and Advanced Pharmacology. 2022; 7(1): 51
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Antibiotic Combination Therapy: A Strategy to Overcome Bacterial Resistance to Aminoglycoside Antibiotics
Nuoyan Wang, Jing Luo, Fei Deng, Yasi Huang, Hong Zhou
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Wound-healing effect of Thumari Taila in the management of diabetic foot ulcer
ForamP Joshi, TukaramS Dudhamal
Journal of Ayurveda. 2022; 16(3): 252
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Antibacterial Activities of selected Medicinal Plants Against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C, Clinical Isolates in North Central, Nigeria.
O. O. Stanislaus, M. B. Etsuyankpa, O. O. Tanko
African Journal of Biotechnology. 2022; 21(11): 528
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Indian Medicinal Plants and Formulations and Their Potential Against COVID-19–Preclinical and Clinical Research
Sayeed Ahmad,Sultan Zahiruddin,Bushra Parveen,Parakh Basist,Abida Parveen,Abida Gaurav,Rabea Parveen,Minhaj Ahmad
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2021; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Phytochemical Screening and in-vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Echinops amplexicaulis, Ruta chalepensis and Salix subserrata Against Selected Pathogenic Bacterial Strains in West Shewa Zone, Ethiopia
Lencho Megersa Marami,Getachew Mulatu Dilba,Dagmawit Atalel Babele,Edilu Jorga Sarba,Askale Gizaw,Wakuma Mitiku Bune,Morka Dandecha Bayu,Petros Admasu,Abraham Mekbeb,Miresa Tadese,Kebede Abdisa,Dejene Bayisa
Journal of Experimental Pharmacology. 2021; Volume 13: 511
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Chemical composition of essential oil by SPME and evaulation antimicrobial, antioxidant activities of medicinal plant of Quercus infectoria galls
Sule Ceylan, Sehmuz Semih Yardimci, Yasemin Camadan, Özlem Saral, Özge Özsen Batur
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus. 2021; 20(6): 93
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Pungent anti-infective nanocolloids manipulate growth, biofilm formation, and CTX-M-15 gene expression in pathogens causing vibriosis
Ranjani S,Pradeep Parthasarathy,Rameshkumar P,VimalKumar U,Hemalatha S
Aquaculture International. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Recent development in therapeutic strategies targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms – A review
Jyoti Yadav,R. Mankamna Kumari,Vivek Verma,Surendra Nimesh
Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Biomedical applications of carrageenan hydrogel impregnated with zinc oxide nanoparticles
M. Sathish, T. Gobinath, A. Sundaramanickam, K. Saranya, A. Nithin, P. Surya
Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Modulatory Effects of Triphala and Manjistha Dietary Supplementation on Human Gut Microbiota: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study
Christine T. Peterson,Aunna Pourang,Simran Dhaliwal,Jordan N. Kohn,Sasha Uchitel,Harjot Singh,Paul J. Mills,Scott N. Peterson,Raja K. Sivamani
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Use of specific combinations of the triphala plant component extracts to potentiate the inhibition of gastrointestinal bacterial growth
Gagan Tiwana,Ian E. Cock,Alan White,Matthew J. Cheesman
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020; : 112937
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Validation and quantification of major biomarkers in ‘Mahasudarshan Churna’- an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation through high-performance thin-layer chromatography
Prabhjot Kaur,R. C. Gupta,Abhijit Dey,Tabarak Malik,Devendra Kumar Pandey
BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 A Simplified Protocol for Reversing Phenotypic Conversion of Ralstonia solanacearum during Experimentation
Pramod Kumar Sahu,Shailendra Singh,Amrita Gupta,Udai B. Singh,Surinder Paul,Diby Paul,Pandiyan Kuppusamy,Harsh V. Singh,Anil Kumar Saxena
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(12): 4274
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Synergistic activity between Triphala and selected antibiotics against drug resistant clinical isolates
Amirthasingam Manoraj,Vasanthi Thevanesam,B. M. R. Bandara,Asela Ekanayake,Veranja Liyanapathirana
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2019; 19(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Therapeutic Uses of Triphala in Ayurvedic Medicine
Christine Tara Peterson,Kate Denniston,Deepak Chopra
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Antibacterial Properties and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Leaves Growing in Bangladesh
Mohammad Abu Hena Mostofa Jamal,Md. Shahedur Rahman,Md. Belal Hossain,Satya Priya Sharma,Hea-Jong Chung,Hyeon-Jin Kim,Seong-Tshool Hong
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2017; 20(1): 155
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Applicability, Feasibility and Efficacy of Phytotherapy in Aquatic Animal Health Management
Ram Prakash Raman
American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2017; 08(02): 257
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles usingRheum palmatumroot extract and their antibacterial activity againstStaphylococcus aureusandPseudomonas aeruginosa
Selvaraj Arokiyaraj,Savariar Vincent,Muthupandian Saravanan,Yoonseok Lee,Young Kyoon Oh,Kyoung Hoon Kim
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology. 2016; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Antimicrobial activity of seaweeds of Pernambuco, northeastern coast of Brazil
Carla Corr ecirc a Alves Renata,Fernanda Figueiredo das Merc Paula,Renata Arruda de Souza Isabel,Maria Alves de Almeida Cl eacute bia,Paula Sant rsquo Anna da Silva Ana,L uacute cia de Menezes Lima Vera,Tereza dos Santos Correia Maria,Vanusa da Silva M aacute rcia,Gomes da Silva Alexandre
African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2016; 10(10): 312
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and alternative therapeutic options
Maitrayee Chatterjee,C.P. Anju,Lalitha Biswas,V. Anil Kumar,C. Gopi Mohan,Raja Biswas
International Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2016; 306(1): 48
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Ethnoveterinary plants for the treatment of camels in Shiwalik regions of Kathua district of Jammu & Kashmir, India
R. Sharma,R.K. Manhas
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Assessments of antibacterial activity, phytochemical constituents, and cytotoxicity of herbal preparations used in Thailand
Sasitorn Chusri,Dennapar Jangkai,Surasak Limsuwan,Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Evidence Based Antibacterial Potentials of Medicinal Plants and Herbs Countering Bacterial Pathogens Especially in the Era of Emerging Drug Resistance: An Integrated Update
Kuldeep Dhama,Ruchi Tiwari,Sandip Chakrabort,Mani Saminathan,Amit Kumar,K. Karthik,Mohd. Yaqoob Wani,Amarpal .,Shoor Vir Singh,Anu Rahal
International Journal of Pharmacology. 2014; 10(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Ethnoveterinary practices among folk medicinal practitioners of three randomly selected villages of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh
Islam, M.A. and Yeasmin, M. and Rahmatullah, M.
American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2013; 7(2): 75-84
26 1.Screening of selected marine algae from the coastal Tamil Nadu, South India for antibacterial activity
Xavier D R, Shanmugavel S, Kuppu R ,Sundaram J
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 1(9)
27 Screening of selected marine algae from the coastal Tamil Nadu, South India for antibacterial activity
Rosaline, X.D. and Sakthivelkumar, S. and Rajendran, K. and Janarthanan, S.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(1 SUPPL.): S140-S146
28 Synthesis, Characterization and In-Vitro Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Novel Isoxazoline Derivatives
Rajeev Bhimwal, Anil K Sharma, Ankit Jain
JAPER. 2011; 1(5): 251-258
[VIEW] | [PDF]
29 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Pyrazoline Derivatives
Biresh K Sarkar, Ritesh Patel , Upendra Bhadoriya
JAPER. 2011; 1(5): 243-250
[VIEW] | [PDF]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Materials and Me...
    Results and Disc...
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1029    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 29    

Recommend this journal