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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 112-116  

Technetium-99m-labeled genistein as a potential radical scavenging agent


1 Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia
2 Applied Nuclear Science and Technology Center (PSTNT), National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN), Bandung, West Java, Indonesia

Date of Web Publication2-Jul-2019

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Danni Ramdhani
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, West Java 45363
Indonesia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_27_19

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  Abstract 

The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for labeling genistein compounds with technetium-99m (99mTc) radionuclides and the percentage of purity obtained in accordance with the requirements of the United State Pharmacopeia. The method used is optimization of several parameters including pH, SnCl2.2H2O as reducing agents, genistein concentration, and incubation time. The results showed that the optimum conditions for labeling 99mTc-Genistein were obtained under conditions of pH 8, the amount of SnCl2.2H2O reducing agents was 30 μg, 0.5 mg genistein, and in 10 min. The optimization of this condition resulted in radiochemical purity in the labeling of 99mTc-Genistein compounds at 95.43% ± 0.85%. The radiochemical purity of the labeling of 99mTc-Genistein compounds has met the requirements of the United State Pharmacopeia as a compound marked for diagnosis of more than 90%.

Keywords: Free radicals, genistein, radiochemical purity, radiopharmaceutical, technetium-99m-genistein, technetium-99m


How to cite this article:
Ramdhani D, Sriyani ME, Ayu F. Technetium-99m-labeled genistein as a potential radical scavenging agent. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2019;10:112-6

How to cite this URL:
Ramdhani D, Sriyani ME, Ayu F. Technetium-99m-labeled genistein as a potential radical scavenging agent. J Adv Pharm Technol Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 16];10:112-6. Available from: http://www.japtr.org/text.asp?2019/10/3/112/261964




  Introduction Top


Cancer is the main disease that causes the biggest death in the world and caused deaths of around 8.2 million in 2012. The biggest cause of cancer deaths every year is caused by lung cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and colorectal cancer.[1]

In Indonesia, about 65% of people with breast cancer come to the doctor at an advanced stage; this indicates the patient is late to detect breast cancer.[2]

Radiopharmaceuticals are compounds containing radioactive elements used for diagnostic purposes and therapeutic treatments for human diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals currently used are more than 95% more for diagnostic purposes and about 5% are used for therapeutic treatment. The application of the use of a compound labeled Technetium-99m (99mTc) in nuclear medicine is very dominant, which is more than 80%.[3]

99mTc for diagnostic purposes because it can emit pure gamma rays (140.5 keV) and has a short half-life time of around 6 h. Short half-life time is expected how the radiation emitted by 99mTc can be used up immediately after the diagnosis process is complete so that the impact of radionuclide exposure can be minimized.[4]

The main requirement of radionuclides and ligands for the diagnosis of cancer is that they can bind to the receptors to form complex compounds. One of the ligands that can be used is genistein. Genistein is an isoflavone compound that has pharmacological effects as anticancer and is able to bind to estrogen receptors with the nature of the selective estrogen receptor modulators.[5]


  Materials and Methods Top


Paper chromatography, dose calibrator (Victoreen®), 5 μL micropipette, 10–100 μL, and 100–1000 μL (Eppendorf®), analytic balance (Mettler Toledo® Type AL 204), oven (Memmert®), Single Channel Analyzer (SCA) (ORTEC®), syringe (Terumo®), 10 mL glass vial.

The materials used are genistein (Sigma Aldrich®), acetone (Merck®), aquabidestilata (IKA Pharma®), DMSO, HCl 0.1 N, Na 99mTcO4- (PT. Ansto), Physiological NaCl (IKA Pharma®), NaOH 0, 1 N, universal pH indicator (Merck®), KLT SGF-254 (Merck®) plate, instant thin layer chromatography-silica gel (ITLC-SG) (Agilent Technologies®), and SnCl2· 2H2O plates (Sigma Aldrich®).

Optimization of pH

The determination of the optimum pH used in labeling genistein with 99mTcO4- used is pH 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 7.5; 8; 9; and 10. Stock genistein solution is added with a solution of SnCl2·2H2O, and the pH is adjusted by adding NaOH or HCl. After pH is obtained, then a 99mTcO4- solution is added. The solution was formed, then it was dropped on the KLT SGF-254 and ITLC-SG plates to determine the purity of the 99mTcO4- Genistein complex.[6]

Optimization of concentration SnCl2.2H2O solution

The determination of the optimum concentrations of SnCl2.2H2O solution was used five variations in the concentration of SnCl2.H2O: 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μL. After adding 100 μL of genistein solution, each solution is adjusted to optimum pH. After that, each solution was added with a solution of 99mTcO4- as much as 500 μL, then, the volume of the vial was equated with the addition of NaCl physiological solution to 2 mL and incubated for 30 min. The solution was formed, then dropped on the KLT SGF-254 and ITLC-SG plates to determine the purity of the 99mTc-Genistein complex.[6]

Optimization of concentration genistein

The determination of optimum genistein concentrations used nine variations in genistein: 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 7.5; and 10 mg/mL. Each solution was added with a solution of SnCl2.2H2O, and also added 99mTcO4- as much as 500 μL. After that, NaCl physiological solution was added to 2 mL and incubated for 30 min. Checking the purity of 99mTc-Genistein complexes was done by dripping each solution on the KLT SGF-254 and ITLC-SG plates.

Optimization of incubation time

Determination of the optimum incubation time on marking genistein with 99mTcO4- used five variations of incubation time, namely 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min. Each solution of genistein added a solution of SnCl2.2H2O in accordance with the optimum results. The pH conditions are adjusted according to the optimum pH that has been obtained. After that, each solution was added with a solution of 99mTcO4- and NaCl physiological solution. Checking the purity of 99mTc-Genistein complexes was done by dripping each solution on the KLT SGF-254 and ITLC-SG plates.[6]

The purity percentage of 99mTc-genistein compounds

The purity of the compound marked 99mTc-Genistein was determined using the TLC method which was then analyzed using SCA. The stationary phase used is the KLT SGF-254 and ITLC-SG plates. For the mobile phase, two solvents are used, namely C1 solution consisting of ethanol: water: ammonia (2: 5: 1) and NaCl physiological solution.[7]

The purity percentage of a compound labeled 99mTc-Genistein is calculated based on the percentage of 99mTcO4- and 99mTcO2(impurity) using the following equation.[8]



Calculation of labeled compounds 99mTc-Genistein:

%99mTc-Genistein = 100% − (%99mTcO2+ %99mTcO4-)


  Results Top


Testing of optimum pH conditions

The pH factor is important in the stability of compounds marked and can affect the reduction power of the reducing agent used, namely SnCl2.2H2O.[5] The results for pH optimization testing and radiochemical purity of 99mTc-genistein labeled compounds are shown in [Table 1] and [Figure 1].
Table 1: The Optimum pH and Radiochemical Purity of 99mTc Genistein Labeled Compounds

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Figure 1: The optimum pH and radiochemical purity of 99mTc genistein labeled compounds

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Test for optimum concentration of SnCl2.2H2O

SnCl2 is reducing agent when in the form of Sn2+ Sn2+ is often used to reduce the level of reduction in medium with a low level of toxicity.[9] The results for the optimization of SnCl2.2H2O solutions and radiochemical purity of 99mTcgenistein labeled compounds are shown in [Table 2] and [Figure 2].
Table 2: The Optimum Concentration of SnCl2.2H2O and Radiochemical Purity of 99mTc genistein labeled compounds

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Figure 2: The optimum SnCl2solution and radiochemical purity of 99mTc genistein labeled compounds

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Optimum concentration of genistein

Determination of the third parameter is the concentration of genistein solution, the concentration used is 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 7.5; and 10 mg/mL. Ligands used to make radiopharmaceutical kits, should have a purity of 99% for other marked compounds derived from ligand impurities.[9],[10] The result for optimization concentration of genestein and radiochemical purity of 99mTc-genistein labeled compounds are shown in [Table 3] and [Figure 3].
Table 3: The Optimum Concentration of Genistein Solution and Radiochemical Purity of 99mTc-Genistein Labeled compounds

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Figure 3: The optimum concentration of genestein and radiochemical purity of 99mTc genistein labeled compounds

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The ideal incubation condition is at room temperature because to facilitate the preparation of compounds marked. The incubation time variations carried out were 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min. Variation in incubation time is needed to determine the optimum time for Sn2+ to reduce 99mTcO4- to 99mTcO2. The result for optimization of incubation time and radiochemical purity of 99mTc-genistein labeled compounds are shown in [Table 4] and [Figure 4].
Table 4: The Optimum Incubation Time of Genistein Solution and Radiochemical Purity of 99mTc-Genistein Labeled Compounds

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Figure 4: The optimum incubation time and radiochemical purity of 99mTc genistein labeled compounds

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  Discussions Top


99mTc radionuclides can form complex compounds with other elements into radiopharmaceutical preparations. The radiopharmaceutical preparation can be used for diagnosis. After being given to patients, radiopharmaceutical preparations can localize certain organs so that imaging can be carried out in the body based on cell function and physiology.[4] Tc can bind to the ligand to form a complex bond that has an electron donor group. The structure of genestein can be seen in [Figure 5].[6]
Figure 5: Structure of genestein

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The purity test of a 99mTc-Genistein compound can be analyzed by the TLC method. The stationary phase used is thin-layer chromatography TLC SG F254 with the mobile phase of physiological NaCl solution to separate the form of 99mTcO4-, 99mTcO4- impurity will move toward the peak while 99mTc-Genistein will remain at the bottling point and ITLC-SG stationary phase with C1 mobile phase to separate 99mTcO2. The 99mTcO2 impurity will remain at the bottling point, and 99mTc-Genistein will move towards the peak.[11]

The results at pH 8 showed that the optimum purity of 99mTc-Genistein was 91.97% ± 1.43% with impurity of 99mTcO2 3.05% ± 0.45% and impurity 99mTcO4- 4.98% ± 1.16%. At a pH which is more basic than 8, it produces a higher 99mTcO4- impurity, because at a higher pH, Sn (II) will be hydrolyzed to stano hydroxide which is no longer functioning as a reducing agent. Whereas in more acidic pH conditions, it will increase the amount of impurity 99mTcO2 because the reducing agent SnCl2.2H2O will reduce more strongly in acidic conditions.[9],[10],[12]

The results obtained on the optimum number of SnCl2.2H2O solutions were 30 μl with a purity of 90.84% ± 2.38% with impurities of 99mTcO2 5.06% ± 1.13% and impurities 99mTcO4- 4.10% ± 0.94%. If the amount of the solution of SnCl2.2H2O is more partial, SnCl2 is hydrolyzed to form its hydroxide which will then bind to 99mTc-reduced to form 99mTcO2 colloid, so that the amount of impurity will be more 99mTcO2.[13]

The optimization of genistein concentration was obtained at 10 mg/mL, but the solution produced was cloudy, as well as at 6, 7, and 7.5 mg/mL. Requirements for intravenous injection preparation, the solution produced must be clear. Therefore, the optimum concentration used was a concentration of 5 mg/mL, with a purity of 92.19% ± 1.86%.

The incubation time is strongly related to the preparation of a radiopharmaceutical preparation to be used. This is related to the effectiveness of the half-life of radionuclide used, and the purpose of therapy or diagnosis. The incubation time obtained is ideal for the application of 10 min. In the next minute, there was a relatively low decrease in purity and was not significant. The optimization of incubation time of 99mTc-Genistein was obtained 10 min with optimum purity of 99mTc-Genistein, which was 95.43% ± 0.85% with impurity of 99mTcO2 0.57% ± 0.14% and impurity 99mTcO4- 4.00% ± 0.72%.


  Conclusions Top


The optimum condition for marking 99mTc-Genistein produced radiochemical purity of 95.43% ± 0.85%. This fulfills the radiochemical purity requirements set by the United State Pharmacopeia as marked compounds for diagnosis of more than 90%.

Acknowledgment

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper. The author also expresses the deepest gratitude and appreciation thanks to Flamboyan Ayu S. K and Chair of the Center for Applied Nuclear Science and Technology (PSTNT), National Nuclear Energy Agency, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia for collaboration in this research.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Cancer Situation. Jakarta: Health Data and Information Buletin; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Tjindarbumi D. Early Cancer Detection and Management. 3rd ed. Jakarta: Hall of Publishers of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Saha BG. Fundamental of Nuclear Pharmacy. 5th ed. New York: Springer; 2003. p. 83, 113, 114, 288.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Rizvi AF, Bokhari TH, Roohi S, Mustaq A. Directabeing of Doxorubicin with Technetium-99m: Its Optimization, Characterization and Quality Control. Budapest, Hungary: Springer Science; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sha GH, Lin SQ. Genistein inhibits proliferation of human endometrial endothelial cell in vitro. Chin Med Sci J 2008;23:49-53.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Komárek P, Kleisner I, Komárková I, Konopková M. The use of redox polymers in labelling procedures of proteins and peptides with 99mTc. II. Technique of preparation of kits for protein labelling by 99mTc and its effect on the stability and radiochemical purity. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur 2000;3:69-72.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Nelly LD. Radiopharmaceutical Textbook. Jakarta: EGC; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Owunwanne A, Patel M, Sadek S. The Handbook of Radiopharmaceuticals. London: Chapman and Hall Medical; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Misyetti. Instability study of radiopharmaceutical dry kits signed 99mtc viewed from chemical and physical aspects. Indone J Nucl Sci Technol 2006;7:65-81.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sriyani ME, Misyetti ID. Labeling 1,4,8,11- tetraazycotetradesil-1, 4,8,11-tetramethylene phosphonate (CTMP) with rhenium-186. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Nuclear Science and Technology. Bandung: PTNBR-BATAN; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Sayed HJ, Amirhossein A, Reza T. Preparation and Biodistribution Study of Technetium-99m-Labeled Quersetin as a Potential Radical Scavenging Agent. Budapest, Hungary: Springer Science; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Nurlaila Z, Sriyani ME. 99mTc-Glutathione Radiopharmaceutical Formulation for Cancer Diagnosis. Indonesian J Nuc Sci Tec 2010;11:77-86.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
United States Pharmacopeial Convention. Official Monographs: USP 28. Technetium 99mTc-Pertechnetate Injection (Sodium). United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 28-National Formulary; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 13
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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