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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 4-8  

Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review


Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication20-Feb-2013

Correspondence Address:
Shahid H Ansari
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062
India
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DOI: 10.4103/2231-4040.107494

PMID: 23662276

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   Abstract 

Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life.

Keywords: Dietary supplement, global market, nutraceutical, regulation


How to cite this article:
Chauhan B, Kumar G, Kalam N, Ansari SH. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2013;4:4-8

How to cite this URL:
Chauhan B, Kumar G, Kalam N, Ansari SH. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review. J Adv Pharm Technol Res [serial online] 2013 [cited 2014 Jul 24];4:4-8. Available from: http://www.japtr.org/text.asp?2013/4/1/4/107494


   Introduction Top


The term nutraceuticals was coined from "nutrition" and "pharmaceutical" by Stephen Defelice MD, founder and chairman of the foundation for innovation in medicine (FIM) Cranford, New Jersy, in 1989. [1] According to Defelice "nutracetuicals are food or part of a food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease." [2] Greek physician HIPPOCRATES (known as father of medicines) said "let food be your medicine" The philosophy behind is "focus on prevention" Other words used in the context are Dietary supplements, functional food, multi-functional food, etc. Functional foods are ordinary foods that have components, ingredients that incorporated into give them a specific medicinal or health benefit moreover nutritional effect. [3]

According to dietary supplement, health and education act (DSHEA) dietary supplements are products intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total daily intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combinations of these ingredients. [4] It may be taken in the form of pill capsule, tablet, or liquid form. It is not represented for use as a conventional food or as the sole item of a meal or diet. It is labeled as a "dietary supplement." [5] Under the DSHEA (1994), the manufacturer of a dietary supplement is responsible for ensuring that the dietary supplement is safe before it is marketed. [6]

Simply, Nutraceuticals means, NUTRITIVE + PHARMACEUTICAL: A food stuff (as a fortified food or dietary supplement) that provides health benefits.

The functional food concept can be defined as "Food products to be taken as part of the usual diet in order to have beneficial effects that go beyond basic nutritional function" [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3] and [Table 4].
Table 1: As per chemical classification[9]

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Table 2: Various vitamins and their health benefits

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Table 3: Common herbals as nutraceuticals

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Table 4: List of marketed nutraceutical products

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   Health Benefits Top


  • Avoid the side effect.
  • May increase the health beneficial effect.
  • May have naturally dietary supplement, so do not have unpleasant side effect.
  • May increase the health value, our diet and improve medical condition of human.
  • May easily be available and economically affordable.
Nutritional therapy is a healing system using dietary therapeutics or nutraceuticals as a complementary therapy. This therapy is based on the belief that foods can not only be sources of nutrients and energy but could also provide medicinal benefits.

According to nutraceutical and nutritional therapy theory, it achieves this goal by using efficacy of such nutraceuticals in detoxifying the body, avoiding vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and restoring healthy digestion and dietary habit. Phytonutrients basically is plant nutrients with particular biological activities in supporting human health. [7]

The phytochemical work by following way:

  1. Substrate for biochemical reactions.
  2. Cofactors of enzymatic reactions.
  3. Inhibitors of enzymatic reactions.
  4. Absorbents that bind to and eliminate undesirable constituent in the intestine.
  5. Enhance the absorption and/or stability of essential nutrients.
  6. Selective growth factor for beneficial bacteria.
  7. Fermentation substrate for beneficial bacteria.
  8. Selective inhibitors of deleterious intestinal bacteria.
  9. Scavengers of reactive or toxic chemicals.
  10. Ligands that agonize or antagonize cell surface or intracellular receptors. [8]

   Classification Top


Nutraceuticals or functional foods can be classified on the basis of their natural sources, pharmacological conditions, or as per chemical constitution of the products.

  1. On the basis of natural source, it can be classified as the products obtained from plants, animals, minerals, or microbial sources.
  2. Nutraceuticals as per the chemical groupings.
Category of Nutraceutical

  • Substances with established nutritional functions, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids-Nutrients.
  • Herbs or botanical products as concentrates or extracts-Herbals.
  • Reagents derived from other sources (e.g., pyruvate, chondroitin sulfate, steroid hormone precursors) serving specific functions, such as sports nutrition, weight-loss supplements, fortified conventional foods, and meal replacements-Dietary supplements.
Dietary supplements are not intended to treat or cure disease, [10] whereas nutraceuticals more emphasize the expected results of these products, such as prevention or treatment of diseases. [11]

Some of the most common ways of classifying nutraceuticals can be based on food sources, mechanism of action, chemical nature, etc. The food sources used as nutraceuticals are all natural and can be categorized as

  1. Dietary Fiber.
  2. Probiotics.
  3. Prebiotics.
  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  5. Antioxidant vitamins.
  6. Polyphenols.
  7. Spices [12]
Nutraceutical can be broadly classified into the following 2 groups:

i) Potential nutraceuticals.

ii) Established nutraceuticals.

A potential nutraceutical could become an established one only after efficient clinical data of its health and medical benefits are obtained. [13],[14]


   Global Demand of Nutraceutical Top


The nutraceutical industry lies under three main segments which include functional foods, dietary supplements, and herbal/natural products. [15] Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion (INR 5148 billion). [16] In 2007, nutraceuticals sale is projected to reach $74.7 billion at an AAGR of 9.9%. This assumes a world economic recovery in 2003 and an end to price competition [Figure 1]. [17]
Figure 1: Nutraceutical market in different countries

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According to a recent report, the total market for nutraceuticals in India is growing at 21 percent per annum. It is currently valued at INR 44bn (€621 m), but could be worth more than INR 95bn in four years. [19]

As a concept, "Nutraceuticals" is still in its stage of infancy in India. But it has been growing much faster than global rates at CAGR of 18% for the last 3 years driven by functional food and beverages categories. [20] The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year).


   Regulations Top


A food stuff (as a fortified food or a dietary supplement) that provides health benefits, if indeed a claim was made that implied medicinal benefit regarding a nutraceutical product, the product would be required to comply with the regulatory requirements for medicinal products, in respect of safety, efficacy, and quality testing and marketing authorization procedures. [14] For decades, FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe and wholesome and that their labeling was truthful and not misleading. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to integrate and streamline the many regulations covering nutraceuticals, foods, and dietary supplements. The act calls for the creation of the Food Safety and Standards Authority (FSSA). [21]


   Benefits of Implementation of Fssa Acts Top


  • Unification of eight laws, i.e, steps to Harmonization.
  • Alignment of international regulations.
  • Science-based standards.
  • Clarity and uniformity on novel food areas.
  • Help curb corruptions.
Unlike the US, where the DSHEA is in place to regulate these products, in India the Government is in the process of drafting a law to regulate manufacturing, importing, and marketing of health foods, dietary supplements, and other nutraceuticals [22] and finally Indian food safety standard bill 2005 signed into law, promising a major impact on Indian food processing industry. The Indian Food Safety and Standard Act came into enforcement in 2006 with the following two main objectives:

  • To introduce a single statute relating to food, and
  • To provide for scientific development of the food processing 2009 industry. [21]

   Government Regulations - NLEA 1990 Top


Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA) defines how food is labeled, including nutrition labeling, in accordance with definitions established by FDA, and providing for the use of claims about the relationship between nutrients and diseases or health-related condition.

Benefits of Regulation

  • Allows greater legal security and more predicable environment.
  • Supports innovation (food and drink products).
  • Prevents unfair competition from manufactures using false or misleading claims.
  • If positive claims cannot be made, the regulation does not oblige anyone to make negative claims about the product. [26]

   Conclusion Top


Nutraceuticals have proven health benefits and their consumption (within their acceptable Recommended Dietary Intakes) will keep diseases at bay and allow humans to maintain an overall good health. Although nutraceuticals have significant promise in the promotion of human health and disease prevention, health professional, nutritionists, and regulatory toxicologist should strategically work together to plan appropriate regulation to provide the ultimate health and therapeutic benefit to mankind. That is why implementation of regulatory body is necessary to standardize the nutraceutical industry. It is also necessary to review this topic because the nutraceutical industry is growing at a rate far exceeding expansion in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Herbal nutraceutical is a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life.


   Acknowledgement Top


The authors wish to thank Jamia Hamdard.

 
   References Top

1.Brower V, Nutraceuticals: Poised for a healthy slice of the healthcare market? Nat Biotechnol 1998;16:728-31.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Trottier G, Boström PJ, Lawrentschuk N, Fleshner NE. Nutraceuticals and prostate cancer prevention: A current review. Nat Rev Urol 2010;7:21-30.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Kalra EK. Nutraceutical - Definition and introduction. AAPS PharmSci 2003;5:E25.   Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Zeisel SH. Regulation of "Nutraceuticals". Science 1999;285:1853-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.FDA/CFSAN resources page. Food and Drug Administration website. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. Available from: http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/dietsupp.html [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.United State Pharmacopeia USP2006, The regulation of Dietary Supplements. Available from: http://www.usp.org/pdf/EN/USPVerified/dietarySupplementRegulation.pdf. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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8.Dillard CJ, German JB. Phytochemicals: Nutraceuticals and human health. J Sci Food Agric 2000;80:1744-56.   Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Faisal N, Varma KS. Nutraceuticals and its impact on health care. Available from: http://farmacists.blogspot.in/2009/05/nutraceuticals-and-itsimpact-on-health.html. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24].  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Ross S. Functional foods: The food and drug administration perspective. Am J Clin Nut 2000;71:1735-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Bagchi D. Nutraceuticals and functional foods regulations in the United States and around the world. Toxicology 2006;221:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Kalia AN. Textbook of industrial pharmacognocy. New Delhi: CBS Publisher and Distributor; 2005. p. 204-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Nutraceutical and cosmaceutical. Pharmacognosy. 21 st ed. Pune, India: Nirali Prakashan. 2002. p. 542-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Pandey M, Verma RK, Saraf SA. Nutraceuticals: New era of medicine and health. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2010;3:11-5.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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16.Rishi RK, Nutraceutical: Borderline between food and drug. Pharma Review 2006. Available from: http://www.kppub.com/articles/herbal-safety-pharmareview-004/nutraceuticalsborderline-between-food-anddrugs.html. [Last accessed on [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24].].  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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19.Available from: http://www.horiba.com/scientific/products/particlecharacterization/applications/nutraceuticals. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24].  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.FICCI study on Implementation of Food Safety and Standard Act 2006: An Industry Perspective. Available from: http://www.Indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/Files/food_safety_study.pdf. [Last accessed on 2009 Mar 1].  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Nutraceutical Market and its Regulation. Available from: http://www.agrifoodgateway.com/articles/nutraceutical-market-and-itsregulation. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24].  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Regulation of functional food in Indian Subcontinent, food and beverages news. Available from: http://www.efenbeonline.com/view_story.asp? type=story and id=880. [Last accessed on 2008 Nov 1].  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Dureja H, Kaushik D, Kumar V. Developments in nutraceuticals. Indian J Pharmacol 2003;35:363-72.  Back to cited text no. 23
  Medknow Journal  
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26.Available from: http://www.nutraceutical.com/educate/pdf/garlic.pdf. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24].  Back to cited text no. 26
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


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    Abstract
   Introduction
   Health Benefits
   Classification
    Global Demand of...
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    Benefits of Impl...
    Government Regul...
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   Acknowledgement
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