|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 4-8
Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review
Baby Chauhan, Gopal Kumar, Nazia Kalam, Shahid H Ansari
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
|Date of Web Publication||20-Feb-2013|
Shahid H Ansari
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life.
Keywords: Dietary supplement, global market, nutraceutical, regulation
|How to cite this article:|
Chauhan B, Kumar G, Kalam N, Ansari SH. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2013;4:4-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Chauhan B, Kumar G, Kalam N, Ansari SH. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review. J Adv Pharm Technol Res [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 Oct 25];4:4-8. Available from: http://www.japtr.org/text.asp?2013/4/1/4/107494
| Introduction|| |
The term nutraceuticals was coined from "nutrition" and "pharmaceutical" by Stephen Defelice MD, founder and chairman of the foundation for innovation in medicine (FIM) Cranford, New Jersy, in 1989.  According to Defelice "nutracetuicals are food or part of a food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease."  Greek physician HIPPOCRATES (known as father of medicines) said "let food be your medicine" The philosophy behind is "focus on prevention" Other words used in the context are Dietary supplements, functional food, multi-functional food, etc. Functional foods are ordinary foods that have components, ingredients that incorporated into give them a specific medicinal or health benefit moreover nutritional effect. 
According to dietary supplement, health and education act (DSHEA) dietary supplements are products intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total daily intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combinations of these ingredients.  It may be taken in the form of pill capsule, tablet, or liquid form. It is not represented for use as a conventional food or as the sole item of a meal or diet. It is labeled as a "dietary supplement."  Under the DSHEA (1994), the manufacturer of a dietary supplement is responsible for ensuring that the dietary supplement is safe before it is marketed. 
Simply, Nutraceuticals means, NUTRITIVE + PHARMACEUTICAL: A food stuff (as a fortified food or dietary supplement) that provides health benefits.
The functional food concept can be defined as "Food products to be taken as part of the usual diet in order to have beneficial effects that go beyond basic nutritional function" [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3] and [Table 4].
| Health Benefits|| |
Nutritional therapy is a healing system using dietary therapeutics or nutraceuticals as a complementary therapy. This therapy is based on the belief that foods can not only be sources of nutrients and energy but could also provide medicinal benefits.
- Avoid the side effect.
- May increase the health beneficial effect.
- May have naturally dietary supplement, so do not have unpleasant side effect.
- May increase the health value, our diet and improve medical condition of human.
- May easily be available and economically affordable.
According to nutraceutical and nutritional therapy theory, it achieves this goal by using efficacy of such nutraceuticals in detoxifying the body, avoiding vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and restoring healthy digestion and dietary habit. Phytonutrients basically is plant nutrients with particular biological activities in supporting human health. 
The phytochemical work by following way:
- Substrate for biochemical reactions.
- Cofactors of enzymatic reactions.
- Inhibitors of enzymatic reactions.
- Absorbents that bind to and eliminate undesirable constituent in the intestine.
- Enhance the absorption and/or stability of essential nutrients.
- Selective growth factor for beneficial bacteria.
- Fermentation substrate for beneficial bacteria.
- Selective inhibitors of deleterious intestinal bacteria.
- Scavengers of reactive or toxic chemicals.
- Ligands that agonize or antagonize cell surface or intracellular receptors. 
| Classification|| |
Nutraceuticals or functional foods can be classified on the basis of their natural sources, pharmacological conditions, or as per chemical constitution of the products.
Category of Nutraceutical
- On the basis of natural source, it can be classified as the products obtained from plants, animals, minerals, or microbial sources.
- Nutraceuticals as per the chemical groupings.
Dietary supplements are not intended to treat or cure disease,  whereas nutraceuticals more emphasize the expected results of these products, such as prevention or treatment of diseases. 
- Substances with established nutritional functions, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids-Nutrients.
- Herbs or botanical products as concentrates or extracts-Herbals.
- Reagents derived from other sources (e.g., pyruvate, chondroitin sulfate, steroid hormone precursors) serving specific functions, such as sports nutrition, weight-loss supplements, fortified conventional foods, and meal replacements-Dietary supplements.
Some of the most common ways of classifying nutraceuticals can be based on food sources, mechanism of action, chemical nature, etc. The food sources used as nutraceuticals are all natural and can be categorized as
Nutraceutical can be broadly classified into the following 2 groups:
- Dietary Fiber.
- Polyunsaturated fatty acids.
- Antioxidant vitamins.
- Spices 
i) Potential nutraceuticals.
ii) Established nutraceuticals.
A potential nutraceutical could become an established one only after efficient clinical data of its health and medical benefits are obtained. ,
| Global Demand of Nutraceutical|| |
The nutraceutical industry lies under three main segments which include functional foods, dietary supplements, and herbal/natural products.  Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion (INR 5148 billion).  In 2007, nutraceuticals sale is projected to reach $74.7 billion at an AAGR of 9.9%. This assumes a world economic recovery in 2003 and an end to price competition [Figure 1]. 
According to a recent report, the total market for nutraceuticals in India is growing at 21 percent per annum. It is currently valued at INR 44bn (€621 m), but could be worth more than INR 95bn in four years. 
As a concept, "Nutraceuticals" is still in its stage of infancy in India. But it has been growing much faster than global rates at CAGR of 18% for the last 3 years driven by functional food and beverages categories.  The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year).
| Regulations|| |
A food stuff (as a fortified food or a dietary supplement) that provides health benefits, if indeed a claim was made that implied medicinal benefit regarding a nutraceutical product, the product would be required to comply with the regulatory requirements for medicinal products, in respect of safety, efficacy, and quality testing and marketing authorization procedures.  For decades, FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe and wholesome and that their labeling was truthful and not misleading. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to integrate and streamline the many regulations covering nutraceuticals, foods, and dietary supplements. The act calls for the creation of the Food Safety and Standards Authority (FSSA). 
| Benefits of Implementation of Fssa Acts|| |
Unlike the US, where the DSHEA is in place to regulate these products, in India the Government is in the process of drafting a law to regulate manufacturing, importing, and marketing of health foods, dietary supplements, and other nutraceuticals  and finally Indian food safety standard bill 2005 signed into law, promising a major impact on Indian food processing industry. The Indian Food Safety and Standard Act came into enforcement in 2006 with the following two main objectives:
- Unification of eight laws, i.e, steps to Harmonization.
- Alignment of international regulations.
- Science-based standards.
- Clarity and uniformity on novel food areas.
- Help curb corruptions.
- To introduce a single statute relating to food, and
- To provide for scientific development of the food processing 2009 industry. 
| Government Regulations - NLEA 1990|| |
Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA) defines how food is labeled, including nutrition labeling, in accordance with definitions established by FDA, and providing for the use of claims about the relationship between nutrients and diseases or health-related condition.
Benefits of Regulation
- Allows greater legal security and more predicable environment.
- Supports innovation (food and drink products).
- Prevents unfair competition from manufactures using false or misleading claims.
- If positive claims cannot be made, the regulation does not oblige anyone to make negative claims about the product. 
| Conclusion|| |
Nutraceuticals have proven health benefits and their consumption (within their acceptable Recommended Dietary Intakes) will keep diseases at bay and allow humans to maintain an overall good health. Although nutraceuticals have significant promise in the promotion of human health and disease prevention, health professional, nutritionists, and regulatory toxicologist should strategically work together to plan appropriate regulation to provide the ultimate health and therapeutic benefit to mankind. That is why implementation of regulatory body is necessary to standardize the nutraceutical industry. It is also necessary to review this topic because the nutraceutical industry is growing at a rate far exceeding expansion in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Herbal nutraceutical is a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life.
| Acknowledgement|| |
The authors wish to thank Jamia Hamdard.
| References|| |
|1.||Brower V, Nutraceuticals: Poised for a healthy slice of the healthcare market? Nat Biotechnol 1998;16:728-31. |
|2.||Trottier G, Boström PJ, Lawrentschuk N, Fleshner NE. Nutraceuticals and prostate cancer prevention: A current review. Nat Rev Urol 2010;7:21-30. |
|3.||Kalra EK. Nutraceutical - Definition and introduction. AAPS PharmSci 2003;5:E25. |
|4.||Zeisel SH. Regulation of "Nutraceuticals". Science 1999;285:1853-5. |
|5.||FDA/CFSAN resources page. Food and Drug Administration website. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. Available from: http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/dietsupp.html [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24]. |
|6.||United State Pharmacopeia USP2006, The regulation of Dietary Supplements. Available from: http://www.usp.org/pdf/EN/USPVerified/dietarySupplementRegulation.pdf. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24]. |
|7.||Zhao J. Nutraceuticals, Nutritional Therapy, Phytonutrients, and Phytotherapy for Improvement of Human Health: A Perspective on Plant Biotechnology Application, 2007. Bentham Science Publishers, Available from: http://www.benthamscience.com/biot/samples/biot1-1/Zhao.pdf. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24]. |
|8.||Dillard CJ, German JB. Phytochemicals: Nutraceuticals and human health. J Sci Food Agric 2000;80:1744-56. |
|9.||Faisal N, Varma KS. Nutraceuticals and its impact on health care. Available from: http://farmacists.blogspot.in/2009/05/nutraceuticals-and-itsimpact-on-health.html. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24]. |
|10.||Ross S. Functional foods: The food and drug administration perspective. Am J Clin Nut 2000;71:1735-8. |
|11.||Bagchi D. Nutraceuticals and functional foods regulations in the United States and around the world. Toxicology 2006;221:1-3. |
|12.||Kalia AN. Textbook of industrial pharmacognocy. New Delhi: CBS Publisher and Distributor; 2005. p. 204-8. |
|13.||Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Nutraceutical and cosmaceutical. Pharmacognosy. 21 st ed. Pune, India: Nirali Prakashan. 2002. p. 542-9. |
|14.||Pandey M, Verma RK, Saraf SA. Nutraceuticals: New era of medicine and health. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2010;3:11-5. |
|15.||Das L, Bhaumik E, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R. Role of nutraceuticals in human health. J Food Sci Technol 2011. |
|16.||Rishi RK, Nutraceutical: Borderline between food and drug. Pharma Review 2006. Available from: http://www.kppub.com/articles/herbal-safety-pharmareview-004/nutraceuticalsborderline-between-food-anddrugs.html. [Last accessed on [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24].]. |
|17.||Nutrition business journal estimates (NBJ data). |
|18.||Joanne B, linda AA, Phillipson DJ. Herbal medicines. 3 rd ed. RPS Publishing; p. 48, 263. |
|19.||Available from: http://www.horiba.com/scientific/products/particlecharacterization/applications/nutraceuticals. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24]. |
|20.||FICCI study on Implementation of Food Safety and Standard Act 2006: An Industry Perspective. Available from: http://www.Indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/Files/food_safety_study.pdf. [Last accessed on 2009 Mar 1]. |
|21.||Nutraceutical Market and its Regulation. Available from: http://www.agrifoodgateway.com/articles/nutraceutical-market-and-itsregulation. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24]. |
|22.||Regulation of functional food in Indian Subcontinent, food and beverages news. Available from: http://www.efenbeonline.com/view_story.asp? type=story and id=880. [Last accessed on 2008 Nov 1]. |
|23.||Dureja H, Kaushik D, Kumar V. Developments in nutraceuticals. Indian J Pharmacol 2003;35:363-72. |
|24.||Available from: http://www.indiamart.com/hindustanbiosynth/nutraceuticalsupplements.html. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24]. |
|25.||Available from: http://www.tradeindia.com/fp348658/Amiriprash-Gold-.html. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24]. |
|26.||Available from: http://www.nutraceutical.com/educate/pdf/garlic.pdf. [Last accessed on 2012 Mar 24]. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]
|This article has been cited by|
||Resveratrol and pterostilbene ameliorate the metabolic derangements associated with smokeless tobacco in estrogen deficient female rats
| ||Abhijit Nirwane,Anuradha Majumdar |
| ||Journal of Functional Foods. 2016; 23: 261 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Chemical and Biological Insights on Cotoneaster integerrimus: A new (-)- epicatechin source for food and medicinal applications
| ||Ahmet Uysal,Gokhan Zengin,Adriano Mollica,Erdogan Gunes,Marcello Locatelli,Turgut Yilmaz,Abdurrahman Aktumsek |
| ||Phytomedicine. 2016; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Chemical and biological fingerprints of two Fabaceae species (Cytisopsis dorycniifolia and Ebenus hirsuta): Are they novel sources of natural agents for pharmaceutical and food formulations?
| ||Ramazan Ceylan,Jelena Katanic,Gokhan Zengin,Sanja Matic,Abdurrahman Aktumsek,Tatjana Boroja,Snežana Stanic,Vladimir Mihailovic,Gokalp Ozmen Guler,Mehmet Boga,Mustafa Abdullah Yilmaz |
| ||Industrial Crops and Products. 2016; 84: 254 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Formulation of saponin stabilized nanoemulsion by ultrasonic method and its role to protect the degradation of quercitin from UV light
| ||Khushwinder Kaur,Raj Kumar,S.K. Mehta |
| ||Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2016; 31: 29 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Nutraceutical Value of Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], and Their Improvement Using Omics Approaches
| ||Anil Kumar,Mamta Metwal,Sanveen Kaur,Atul K. Gupta,Swati Puranik,Sadhna Singh,Manoj Singh,Supriya Gupta,B. K. Babu,Salej Sood,Rattan Yadav |
| ||Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016; 7 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Evolution of a Natural Products and Nutraceuticals Course in the Pharmacy Curriculum
| ||Werner J. Geldenhuys,Michelle L. Cudnik,Daniel L. Krinsky,Altaf S. Darvesh |
| ||American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2015; 79(6): 82 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Common delivery systems for enhancing in vivo bioavailability and biological efficacy of nutraceuticals
| ||Yuwen Ting,Yike Jiang,Chi-Tang Ho,Qingrong Huang |
| ||Journal of Functional Foods. 2014; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Nutraceuticals for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia
| ||Massimo R. Mannarino,Stefano Ministrini,Matteo Pirro |
| ||European Journal of Internal Medicine. 2014; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Role of Nutraceuticals in Dementia Care
| ||Jonathan M. Ford,Nicole J. Brandt |
| ||Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2014; 40(4): 12 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|